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Plate XV 






















POPULAR HISTORY 



BRITISH FERNS 



AND THE ALLIED PLANTS, 



COMPRISING THE 



CLUB-MOSSES, PEPPERWORTS, AND HORSETAILS. 



BY 

THOMAS MOORE, E.L.S., &c., 

CURATOR OF THE BOTANIC GARDEN OF THE SOCIETY OF APOTHECARIES, CHELSEA, 
AND AUTHOR OF *A HANDBOOK OF BRITISH FERNS,' ETC., ETC. 



LONDON : 

REEVE AND BENHAM, 
HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN. 



1851. 




PRINTED BY REEVE AND NICHOLS, 
HEATHCOCK COURT, STRAND. 



TO 

N. B. WABD, ESQ., P. L. S., &c., 

WHOSE INVENTION OF 
CLOSE GLAZED CASES 

HAS EXTENDED THE CULTIVATION OP FERNS TO THE PARLOUR, 

THE WINDOW-SILL, AND THE CITY COURT-YARD, 

AS WELL AS ENRICHED OUR GARDENS WITH THE FRUITS AND FLOWERS 
OF OTHER LANDS, 

(!jte ^Little Walumt 

IS, WITH MUCH RESPECT AND ESTEEM, DEDICATED, 
BY HIS OBLIGED FRIEND, 

THE AUTHOR. 



PREFACE. 



IT has been presumed that we have been labouring for 
beginners in the study of Ferns, and especially for the 
young. Hence our aim has been to familiarize the sub- 
ject as far as possible, without sacrificing that integrity 
of detail which may render these pages acceptable even to 
those who have made some progress in the study ; and with 
this end in view, we have avoided all unnecessary techni- 
calities, and confined ourselves rather to plain, and, as we 
hope, easily understood descriptions of the plants. Those 
dubious and debateable matters, which, perhaps, have the 
most interest to the advanced student, have been for the 



VI PEEFACE. 

most part entirely avoided, as being calculated to perplex 
rather than instruct those who are but acquiring the rudi- 
ments of the subject. 

Abstruse questions of identity or of specific distinctions 
have also been regarded as foreign to the purposes of this 
' History/ On these points we have been content to follow 
the generally received opinions of Pteridologists. In one 
or two instances, in which perhaps this course has been 
departed from, the reason has been made sufficiently ob- 
vious. 

These explanations may serve to acquaint more advanced 
students why so little of novelty has been prominently 
introduced, and why several recently described plants have 
been rather treated as varieties than as species. The 
consideration of the specific distinctness of these plants 
opens up questions involving much doubt and difficulty, 
and leading different inquirers to widely different conclu- 



PREFACE. Vll 

sions. Of the difficulties of such questions the uninitiated 
can have but a faint idea, neither could they be expected 
to see clearly through them in any form in which they 
could possibly be presented to them. It has, therefore, 
been thought best to simplify the matter by regarding such 
dubious species as varieties, ranging them with those ad- 
mitted species in whose company, it appeared to us, they 
would be most easily recognized. In doing this, however, 
we record no opinions as to the questions really involved. 

One novel species a less dubious addition to our 
British Ferns has been announced while these pages have 
been going through the press. This will be found de- 
scribed in an Appendix. 

One word. more. If it so happens that any of those who 
may be led by the perusal of these pages to study the Ferns 
of Britain, should, in the course of their inquiries, meet 
with difficulties or perplexities which we may be able to 



Vlll PREFACE. 

remove, it will afford us much gratification to do so. And 
we should be glad to trouble any reader for information 
as to the occurrence of any of the species in the counties 
to which they are not assigned under the head of " Local 
Distribution/'' 



Botanic Garden, Chelsea, London, 
November, 1851. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Fi - 



PLATE I. 

1 Ceterach officinarum 

2 Polypodium vulgare 



PLATE II. -' 

1 Polypodium Dryopteris 

2 - - Phegopteris 



PLATE III. " 

1 Polypodium calcareum 

2 Wooclsia ilvensis 



PLATE IV. 

1 Woodsia hyperborea 

2 Polystichum Lonchitis . 

PLATE V. - 

1 Allosorus crispus 

2 Polystichum angulare .. 



Page. 

100 
152 



148 
150 



146 
181 



179 
160 



64 
158 



PLATE VI. - /i6 

l ri &- Page. 

1 Lastrea Thelypteris 136 

2 cristata 116 

PLATE VII. -131 
1 Lastrea Oreopteris ....... 131 

PLATE VIII. - f 

I Lastrea Filix-mas, and var. 
cristata 126 

PLATE IX. - ( ^ ^ 

1 Lastrea rigida 132 

2 dilatata 123 

PLATE X. ~/^ 

1 Cystopteris fragilis 106 

2 alpina 104 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATE XI. - * 1 

Fig. Page. 

1 Atliyrium Pilix-foemina, and 
var. multifidum ........ 87 

PLATE XII. ^ 

1 Asplenium lanceolatum ... 74 

2 - Adiantmn-nigrum ... 66 

3 - septentrionale ...... 79 



PLATE XIII. -^ 

1 Asplenium Euta-muraria, var. 78 

2 - fontanurn ......... 69 

3 - germanicum ....... 72 

4 - virkle ............. 83 

5 - Trichomanes ....... 80 

PLATE XIV. - ) *> 

1 Asplenium marinum ...... 76 

2 Cystopteris montana ...... 109 

PLATE XY. - ^] 

1 Scolopendrium vulgare .... 169 

2 Hymenopliyllum tunbridg- 

ense ................. 113 

3 Hymenopliyllum unilaterale . 114 



PLATE XVI. 

Fig. 

1 Adiantum Capillus-Veneris . 

2 Blechimm Spicant ....... 

PLATE XVII. ~'^ 

1 Pteris aquilina, var. integer- 

rima ................. 1 

2 Pilularia globulifera ...... 2 

PLATE XVIII. - ' K 

1 Trichomanes radicans ..... 1 

2 Botrychium Lunaria ...... 

3 Ophioglossum Tulgatuni ... 1 

PLATE XIX. '^^ 



1 Isoetes lacustris . 

2 Osmunda regalis 



J 



PLATE XX. " u1 ^ 

1 Equisetum hyemale ...... 2 

2 - Telmateia ......... $ 

3 - sylvaticum ......... 2 

4 Lycopodium inundatum ... 1 

5 - Selago . . ........ 1 

6 - clavatum .......... ] 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

INTRODUCTION . 1 

THE STRUCTURE OF FERNS 7 

PROPAGATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND CULTURE . . 20 

DISTRIBUTION AND TOPOGRAPHICAL ASPECT . . 29 

THE USES OF FERNS 33 

SELECTION AND PRESERVATION FOR THE HERBA- 
RIUM 37 

THE CLASSIFICATION OF FERNS ...... 41 

TABLE OF THE GROUPS AND GENERA OF BRITISH 

FERNS AND ALLIED PLANTS .... 34 

TABLE OF THE SPECIES AND VARIETIES 49 



Xll CONTENTS. 

THE BRITISH PERNS 

THE BRITISH CLUB-MOSSES 

THE BRITISH PEPPERWORTS 

THE BRITISH HORSETAILS 

LOCAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE BRITISH FERNS, CLUB- 
MOSSES, PEPPERWORTS, AND HORSETAILS 



APPENDIX . 
ADDITIONAL SYNONYMS 
INDEX 



POPULAR 
HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

THERE are several causes which conduce to render the 
native Perns of Great Britain an attractive object of study. 
Of these we will mention the following : 

1. They are for the most part objects of exquisite ele- 
gance, and this is apparent, whether they are superficially 
examined as to their external appearance, or whether they 
are investigated anatomically, with the view to discover 
and analyse their minute structure. 

2. They are not very numerous, nor very inaccessible, 
and consequently their study opens a field which even 
those who have not much leisure may hope to compass, 
and for which the greater part, at least, of the materials 
may be obtained without much difficulty. 

" 



2 HISTORY OF BRITISH FEENS. 

3. They are plants for the most part very easily culti- 
vated, and of all others perhaps the best adapted to parlour 
or window culture ; and hence, besides the interest they may 
excite in the collection and preservation of them in the 
herbarium, and in the study of them in the dried state, there 
is to be added the pleasure to be derived from their culti- 
vation, and the opportunities thus afforded of studying and 
admiring them in the living state. 

Those who desire a thorough knowledge of the species 
of Perns, should certainly, if possible, adopt the method of 
study just indicated, as it reveals many curious and in- 
teresting features which are not to be learned from the 
investigations though patiently and assiduously prose- 
cuted which are aided only by dried portions of the 
plants. All the essential points necessary for the recogni- 
tion of the species, may, nevertheless, be availably present 
in well-selected herbarium specimens, so that those who 
have not convenience for cultivating them, may yet store 
up in their cabinets ample materials for their amusement 
and instruction in detached and leisure hours. 

There is something peculiarly fascinating in the graceful 
outline and disposition of parts, which is so common among 
the Perns as to have become associated in idea with this 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

portion of the vegetable creation. Gaudy colouring is 
indeed absent, and they wear while in life and health 
nothing beyond a livery of sober green, which can scarcely 
be said to gain ornament from the brownish scales, with 
which in some of our native species it is associated on the 
living plant. In some exotic forms indeed, as for example 
in the species of Gymnogramma, the lower surface is covered 
more or less with a silvery or golden powder, which adds 
considerably to their beauty; and in the wide range of 
the " Ferns of all nations " there is considerable variety, 
even of the tints of green, to be observed. The more sober- 
tinted natives of our northern latitude can, however, boast 
but of comparatively little such variety of hue. It is not, 
therefore, in the colouring that their attractions rest ; nor 
is it in their endurance, for a large proportion of the native 
species lose all their beauty as soon as the frost reaches 
them, and for nearly one-half of the year are dormant un- 
less artificially sheltered. "We therefore conclude, that it 
is the elegant forms and graceful habits of the majority of 
the Ferns, native and exotic, which render them so gene- 
rally pleasing, even to those who are slow to perceive beauty 
apart from rich and gaudy colouring. 

The number of the native species of Ferns may be taken 



4 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

-at from forty to fifty, according as some of the more doubt- 
ful forms are ranked as species or varieties. In a botanical 
point of view the lowest estimate is probably the most cor- 
rect, as the experience we have of some of the so-called 
species leads to the notion that they are insensibly united 
by intermediate forms. As, however, affecting their culti- 
vation, or when the Terns are taken up as a "fancy/* the 
higher number is too low ; for we hold that in all such 
cases, if one plant is palpably different from another, it 
forms a legitimate object for culture or for study as a dis- 
tinct object, though the differences may be of such a cha- 
racter as would lead the rigid botanist to brand it as not 
" specifically distinct." 

There is a good deal of pedantry abroad on this question 
of the limits of the species of plants, with which, happily, 
in this popular sketch of the British Perns, we shall have 
no occasion to intermeddle. 

The literature of the British Ferns is tolerably extensive, 
viewed in connection with the comparative numerical insig- 
nificance of the plants themselves, a mere fraction of the 
three thousand species of Ferns which are known to botanists, 
and a mere fraction, also, of our indigenous vegetation. 

Passing by the ancient writers, whose works are both 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

for the most part inaccessible, and not of much value to 
the casual student, we shall enumerate the several English 
publications of the present day, which are exclusively oc- 
cupied in the description of the British Ferns and their 
allies ; as we hope some at least of our readers may be so 
far led on by the sketch we shall endeavour to offer in the 
following pages, as to seek the further assistance to be 
derived from the more varied sources indicated below. We 
shall arrange them in the order of their original publication, 
and mention the most recent editions : 

1. An Analysis of the British Ferns and their allies. By 

G. W. Francis, F.L.S. Fourth Edition (same as the 
Third, excepting the date on the title). 8vo, pp. 88, 
with 9 plates, containing reduced figures of the spe- 
cies described. 

2. A History of British Ferns, and allied plants. By 

Edward Newman, F.L.S., &c. Enlarged Edition of a 
former work. 8vo, pp. 224, with beautiful woodcut 
illustrations. 

3. Florigraphia Britannica, Vol. IY. : The Ferns of Britain 

and their allies. By Richard Deakin, M.D. 8vo, 
pp. 136, with 31 plates and numerous woodcuts. 

4. A Handbook of British Ferns. By Thomas Moore, 



6 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

F.L.S., &c. IGmo, pp. 156, with plain woodcuts of 

all the species and the principal varieties. 

The most important enumerations of the British Ferns 

elsewhere to 1>e met with, are those in the recent edition 

(6th) of Sir W. J. Hooker's < British Mora/ by Dr. Walker 

Arnott, and in Mr. Babiiigton's ' Manual of British Botany * 

(3rd edit.), in both of which they are treated with deference 

to modern views. Ample descriptions of them so far as 

then known, are given in Sir J. E. Smith's e English Flora/ 

accompanied by the synonyms of the older writers. 

Much has been achieved towards a thorough knowledge 
of the English species, by the scrutiny to which the Ferns 
at large have of late years been subjected, both in this 
country and in Germany ; and we ought not to close this 
paragraph without mentioning, of English botanists who 
have contributed to this advance, the names of Brown, 
Hooker, Wallich, Greville, J. Smith, and Heward, espe- 
cially, as having most successfully dealt with a difficult 
subject. 



THE STRUCTURE OF FERNS. 

BUT our young readers will be ready to ask, What is a Pern ? 
This we will now endeavour to explain by means of a 
familiar comparison, 

It is presumed that every reader of this little book, even 
the youngest, can recognize a flower, not indeed by the aid 
of the somewhat technical intricacies to which the man of 
science would resort, but by means of that intuitive per- 
ception, which has grown up with the growing faculties and 
acquired strength from the little experiences of childhood 
and youth. We. will suppose, then, that all our readers are 
familiar with natural productions such as the buttercup, the 
poppy, the brier-rose, the daisy, the dandelion, and others 
such as these, which are so profusely dispersed over the 
meadows and corn-fields, and along the hedge-rows, and by 
the way-sides : even the young ears of corn and the spikes 
of meadow grasses must be well-remembered objects. Now, 
these all afford examples of flowers, or of masses of flowers. 
But then the plants from which the daisy heads and 



8 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

dandelions were plucked to be made into floral chains, and 
those which yielded the buttercups, the roses, and various 
others for the rural bouquet, produced, besides their flowers 
those brilliantly coloured parts which the tiny fingers chiefly 
desired to gather other parts, mostly green, and in which 
the same intuitive perception has learned to recognize the 
leaves. These " organs/' as they are called the leaves and 
the flowers are the two most conspicuous parts of the 
majority of plants. 

Popularly speaking, a Peru may be said to be a plant 
which never bears flowers, but leaves only ; and these leaves 
are greatly varied, and very elegant in form. But some one 
will say, How can I tell a Pern, which never bears flowers, from 
some other plant which does bear flowers, but from which 
they are temporarily absent ? A little patience, and a little 
attentive study, will overcome this seeming, and to the 
beginner real, difficulty. You must search for what seems 
to be a full-grown plant. Examine the under surface of its 
leaves, and you will see brown dusty-looking patches, round 
or elongated or in lines, scattered here and there, and 
generally arranged with much regularity. These patches are 
vast accumulations of the minute seeds so minute as to be 
fabulously invisible from which young fern-plants would 
be produced. 



THE STRUCTURE OF FERNS. 9 

Now, as the leaves of those plants which do bear flowers 
do not bear these dusty patches, it is on their presence that 
the novice must depend for the assurance that the plant he 
has under examination is really a Fern. It must be confessed, 
indeed, that this is a very imperfect definition, and one 
which would fail to satisfy the more advanced student ; but 
in truth, there is no other available guide-mark at the 
starting point, nor until the eye has become familiarized 
with the peculiar appearances by aid of which Perns may be 
recognized at first sight. This first step the ready re- 
cognition of a Fern from other plants will be greatly as- 
sisted by Mr. Fitch's characteristic figures which accompany 
and ornament these pages. More detailed particulars of 
the peculiarities of Ferns we must now proceed to offer. 

Ferns, as we have already stated, are flowerless plants. 
They are furnished with roots, by which they obtain nou- 
rishment from the soil ; with stems, by which their con- 
spicuous parts are borne up and supported; and with 
leaves, to which their elegance is due, these leaves bearing 
on some part of their surface, but usually on the lower face, 
the seeds by which the plants may be propagated. These 
are their external parts, and are called organs. 

The proper roots of Ferns are entirely fibrous, and they 



10 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

proceed from the under side of the stem, when the latter 
assumes the prostrate or creeping mode of growth ; but 
when it grows erect, they are produced towards its lower 
end on all sides indifferently, from among the bases of the 
decayed leaves or fronds. Fibrous roots are so called from 
their consisting of little thread-like parts, which, as they 
extend by growth at their points, insinuate themselves 
between the particles of earth to which they have access, 
and this in process of time becomes filled with their rami- 
fications. They often form entangled masses, but are not 
always sufficiently numerous for this. The fibres of Perns 
are mostly of a somewhat rigid or wiry texture ; and in the 
younger portions are often more or less covered with fine 
soft hairs, which become lost with age. It is by means of 
these organs chiefly, that Perns, and all the more highly de- 
veloped plants, are nourished. 

The stem of a Pern, which is sometimes called a rhizome, 
sometimes a caudex names given to particular modifications 
of the stems of plants forms either an upright stock, which 
in our native species seldom elevates itself above the sur- 
face of the ground, but in certain exotic ferns reaches from 
thirty to fifty feet or more in height, and gives a tree-like 
character to the species ; or it extends horizontally either on 



THE STRUCTURE OF PERNS. 11 

or beneath the surface of the soil, and forms what is called 
a creeping stem. These creeping stems are generally 
clothed with hairs or scales, and sometimes to such an 
extent as to become quite shaggy ; they vary greatly in size, 
some being as thick as one's wrist, and others, as in our 
native Hymenopliyllums, as fine as threads. 

The common Polypody has the thickest stem of any 
of the creeping British species : in this it is about as thick 
as one's thumb ; but that of the common Bracken, or Pleris, 
creeps the most extensively. The Osmuncla, or Flowering 
Pern, as it is called, is, of the native upright-growing species, 
that which most readily gains height, and very old plants of 
this may sometimes be found with bare stems of a foot or 
more in length. The common Male Pern, the Lastrea Oreop- 
teris, and the Polystichum angnlare, have also a tendency, 
though in a less degree, to this mode of growth, but it never 
becomes apparent except in the case of very aged plants. 

The leaves of Perns are generally called fronds, and as we 
think this latter term the most appropriate, we shall adopt 
it, with this general explanation, that it means the leaf-like 
organs which are borne on the proper stem. The leaf-like 
character they bear, has led some botanists to reject the 
term frond altogether, and to consider them as true 



12 HISTORY OP BRITISH FERNS. 

leaves ; but since they produce, from some part of their 
surface, what in their case stands in the place of flowers, 
there is no more reason why they should be called leaves, 
than the leaf-like stems of Cactuses, or those of some 
curious hot-house plants called Xylophyllas, each of which 
is an example of a plant bearing its flower on what appear 
to be leaves, but which are in reality stems. The frond or 
leafy part of a Fern is, however, not to be classed among 
stems; and hence, since it is of intermediate character 
between a leaf and a stem, a distinctive name seems to be 
properly applied to it. The name in common use among 
botanists is frond, which we shall therefore adopt, and re- 
commend our young friends to employ. 

As there are no flowers produced by the Ferns (we use 
the term flower in its popular sense, without entering into 
points of speculative botany), it is in the fronds that we must 
seek for that ornamental aspect which renders them such 
general favourites. The fronds alone, however, afford 
almost endless variety : some are very large, others very 
small; some quite simple and not at all divided, others 
divided beyond computation into little portions or segments, 
and it is these much-divided fronds which, generally 
speaking, are the most elegant. 



THE STRUCTURE OE FERNS. 13 

Even in the few species which are natives of Britain, this 
variety of size and form is very obvious, some kinds not 
being more than two or three inches, others five to six feet 
or more in height, some quite simple, and others cut 
into innumerable small segments. There is much variety 
of texture too : some being thin and delicate, almost trans- 
parent, others thick and leathery, and some perfectly rigid ; 
some are pale green, some are deep green, some are blue- 
green, some dark brownish, scarcely green at all ; some are 
smooth and shining, others opake, and some few are 
covered with hair-like scales. 

The duration of the fronds of many species is compara- 
tively short : they come up in spring, and in some cases 
the earliest of them do not last till autumn, in others they 
continue until touched by frost, from which the more 
robust of them shrink, even as the tender sorts do from 
drought as well as frost. Others are much more durable, 
and the plants, if in a moderately sheltered situation, 
become evergreen. These latter should be most ex- 
tensively adopted for culture where ornamental effect is an 
object. We shall point out these peculiarities as we de- 
scribe the different species. 

The fronds of Perns consist of two parts the leafy portion; 



14 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

and the stalk, which latter is often called the stipes. The 
continuation of the stalk, in the form of a rib extending 
through the leafy portion, and becoming branched when the 
frond is divided, is called the rachis ; if the frond is compound, 
that is, divided, so that there is another set of ribs besides 
the principal one, the latter is called the primary rachis, and 
the former the secondary rachis. Eew of our native spe- 
cies are so highly compound as to possess more than a 
secondary rachis. In practice, when the outline or division 
of the frond is mentioned, it is generally the leafy portion 
only that is referred to, exclusive of the stipes. 

The stipes is generally furnished more or less with mem- 
branous scales, which are sometimes few and confined to the 
base, and at other times continued along the rachis. Some- 
times these scales, which are generally brown, are large 
and so numerous that the parts on which they are situated 
acquire a shaggy appearance. The form of the scales, as 
well as their number and position and even colour, is found 
to be very constant in the different species or varieties, and 
hence they sometimes afford good marks of recognition. 
Whenever they are produced along the rachis, as well as 
on the stipes, they are invariably largest at the base, and 
become gradually smaller upwards. 



THE STRUCTURE OF FERNS. 15 

In some species the leafy portion of the frond is un- 
divided, that is to say, the margins are not scalloped or 
cut away at all : an example of this occurs in the common 
Hart's-tongue. The margin is, however, much more com- 
monly more or less divided. In the simplest mode of 
division which occurs among the British species, the margin 
of the frond is deeply divided or scalloped out at short 
intervals, the divisions extending inwards nearly to the 
rachis, bat not reaching it : this slightly divided form is 
called pinnatiftd. 

The fronds are sometimes divided quite down to the rachis, 
which is, as it were, quite bared of the contiguous leafy 
expansion, and when this occurs the frond is said to be 
pinnate ; in this case, each of the distinct leaf-like divisions 
is called a pinna. When these pinnse are divided again 
upon precisely the same plan the frond becomes lipinnate, 
or twice pinnate, but if the pinnse are only deeply lobed 
they are said to be pinnatifid. 

When the fronds are thrice pinnate, and in all other 
more intricate forms, they are called decompound, but this 
seldom occurs in any of the native kinds ; the nearest 
approach to it is in very vigorous plants of the common 
Bracken, and in some of the Lastreas, when very largely 
developed. 



16 HISTORY OF BEITISH TEENS. 

The young fronds of the ferns before being developed 
are arranged in a very curious manner, the rachis being 
tolled inwards from the point to the base, and in the com- 
pound sorts the divisions are each again rolled up in a 
similar way. This arrangement is what is called circinate. 
All the British species, with two exceptions, are folded up 
in this way, so that their development consists of an un- 
rolling of the fronds. The exceptions mentioned, are the 
Moonwort and the Adders-tongue, in both of which the 
fronds in the undeveloped state are folded straight. 

The substance of the fronds is traversed by veins vari- 
ously arranged; in some species forming straight parallel 
lines, in others joined together like net-work. The manner 
in which the veins are disposed is called the venation, and 
the nature of this venation affords useful data in the divi- 
sion of the ferns into family groups. It is from some 
determinate part of these veins that the clusters of fructifi- 
cation "proceed, that part to which they are attached being 
called the receptacle. A correct appreciation of the con- 
dition and position of the receptacle with reference to the 
veins, is of considerable importance in the study of the 
genera and species that is to say, the individual kinds and 
the family groups. In some, though few of the native 



THE STRUCTURE OF FERNS. 17 

kinds, it is projected beyond the margin, and the little cases 
of seeds are collected around its free extremity. More 
commonly, however, the veins stop within the margins, and 
the seed- cases grow in round or elongated clusters, situate 
at their ends or along their sides, and protruded through 
the skin of the lower surface of the fronds. 

No flowers are produced, but the plants bear, generally, 
great abundance of seed-like bodies, which are technically 
called spores, and are contained in little cases of very sin- 
gular construction. Collectively, these cases and their 
contents are called the fructification. The seed-cases, as 
already remarked, are attached in the different species to 
certain determinate thickened portions of the veins, which 
points of attachment are called the receptacles. Each 
separate mass or cluster of the seed-cases is called a sorus, 
but as they are generally spoken of collectively, the plural 
term sori becomes much more frequently used. 

The seed-cases called also spore-cases, or sporangia, or 
tlieca are mostly minute roundish-oval bodies, containing 
one cavity, and nearly surrounded by an elastic vertical 
band or ring, which is continued from the base so as to 
form a short stalk, by which they are attached. TV hen 
they have reached maturity, the elasticity of the ring 



18 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

bursts the case irregularly, and the seeds or spores, in the 
shape of fine dust, almost invisible, become dispersed. 
This is what occurs in the majority of the native species ; in 
Trichomanes and the Hymenopliyllums, however, the elastic 
band is horizontal or oblique ; and in Osmunda, Botrycliiurn, 
and OpJiioylossum, the spore-cases are two-valved, and des- 
titute of the elastic ring. 

In a considerable proportion of the known species of 
Perns, and in the majority of those which are natives of 
Great Britain, the sori are covered in the earlier stages of 
growth by what is commonly called the indiwum, which 
is mostly a thin transparent membranous scale of the same 
general form as the sorus itself, at first completely covering 
or enclosing the young seed-cases. Eventually, however, 
by their growth, its margins are disrupted, and it is cast off, 
frequently even before the maturity of the seeds. Some 
species, however, never bear any indusium, and its presence 
or absence is consequently one of the technical points by 
which the large body of Terns are divided into groups of 
manageable extent. In some Perns the indusium, or cover, 
or at least what is considered analogous to it, is cup-shaped, 
containing the seed-cases; but this form is of very rare 
occurrence among the native species, and exists only in 
Trichomanes and the Hymenophyllums. 



THE STRUCTURE OF FERNS. 19 

Taking now a retrospective glance, we have seen that 
the Perns are, as regards external structure, flowerless 
plants, having erect or creeping stems, which bear the leaf- 
like fronds ; and on some part of the surface of the latter, 
usually the lower side, but sometimes the margin, are borne 
the clusters of seeds, which, in the majority of the native 
species, are, when young, furnished with a membranous 
scale-like cover. 

The subject of internal structure, or anatomy, is foreign 
to the purposes of this volume. We may, however, men- 
tion in general terms, that the Ferns belong to the lowest 
group of vegetation, which is especially remarkable for its 
loose and often succulent texture, owing to the absence, or 
nearly so, of those tissues which give firmness and elas- 
ticity to the higher orders of plants. The Perns, however, 
are the highest members of this group, and hence we find 
them possessing, to some extent, both woody and vascular 
tissue, matters which, together with cellular tissue, the 
soft loose material above mentioned, may be found explained 
in any elementary book on physiological botany. 



20 



PROPAGATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND CULTURE. 

NATURALLY Perns are propagated by means of the spores, 
of which mention has been already made. These spores 
are somewhat analogous to seeds, being like them endowed 
with that mystery the vital germ ; and, when placed under 
fitting conditions, they become developed into young plants ; 
but they differ from seeds in some important particulars. 

All true seeds have a determinate structure; they have 
an embryo, with special organs, namely, the plumule, or 
germ of the ascending axis, the origin of the stem, and 
the radicle, or germ of the descending axis, the origin of 
the root. When a seed is planted, in whatever position it 
may chance to have been deposited in the soil, the young 
root or radicle strikes downwards, and the young stem or 
plumule grows upwards. 

The Tern spores have none of these determinate parts, 
but are, as it were, homogeneous atoms ; and when placed 
under circumstances which induce germination, that part 
which lies downwards produces the root, and that part 



PROPAGATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND CULTURE. 21 

which, lies upwards produces the rudimentary stem. The 
spores are very minute vesicles of various shapes, but 
mostly roundish, and are often beautifully ornamented with 
markings on the exterior. They consist merely of a small 
vesicle of cellular tissue, and as they grow this vesicle 
becomes divided into others, which again multiply and 
enlarge, until they form a minute green leaf-like patch, 
roundish but irregular in outline, unilateral, and often, if not 
always, two-lobed, forming a primordial scale or leaf ; this 
by degrees thickens at a central point on the side, which 
henceforth becomes the axis of development, and from this 
point a small leaf or frond is produced on the upper surface 
where the tissue is acted on by light. This leaf is usually 
very different in aspect as well as size from the mature 
fronds, and is succeeded by other fronds, which acquire by 
degrees the characteristic features peculiar to their species. 

In some annual Ferns the mature character is soon at- 
tained, but in others two or more years of growth is re- 
quired before they reach maturity; they, however, soon 
begin to assume something of their peculiar appearance, 
so that by the time three or four of these young fronds 
are produced, sometimes even earlier, a practised eye can 
recognize the species. 



22 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

It is from the under side of the thickened point or 
axis of development above mentioned, where it comes in 
contact with the moistened soil, that the roots are protruded, 
The stem, or caudex, whatever its character, originates in 
this primary axis of development. 

In the first stages of development, then, the young seed- 
ling Ferns (that is, Perns raised from the spores) assume the 
appearance of a Liverwort, forming a green, semi-transparent, 
crust-like patch on the surface of the soil the unilateral 
primordial scale referred to above. 

In these minute and almost invisible atoms, no less than 
in the more ponderous materials which surround us, we dis- 
cover the impress of Almighty and Creative power. They 
teem with life ! No commixture of elementary matter, no 
electric shock guided by human agency, can originate that. 
Truly the hand that made them is Divine ! 

The requisite conditions to induce the germination of the 
spores of Ferns, in addition to the supply of the degree of heat 
proper for the species which produced them, is simply contact 
with a continually damp surface. Diffused light is favourable 
to the young growth as soon as it begins to form, but is appa- 
rently not necessary as a means of exciting it. It matters 
little in what way the principal condition above-mentioned 



PROPAGATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND CULTURE. 23 

is supplied. In hothouses, where the plants stand and 
shed their spores, the latter germinate freely on the undis- 
turbed soil, or on any damp brickwork with which they 
come in contact, or on the upright sides of the pots in 
which the plants are growing, if these are so circumstanced 
as to remain continually damp. They grow very readily on 
the rough surface of a piece of sandstone-rock, just kept 
moistened by water constantly but slowly dripping upon it. 

The most convenient way, however, to raise Ferns from 
the spores, where cultivation is the object, is to sow them 
on the surface of peat soil, in pots of convenient size, the 
surface of the soil being kept an inch or more below the 
level of the pot rim, so that a piece of flat glass may be 
laid over the top, to secure a close and constantly moist 
atmosphere, and prevent rapid evaporation from the soil. 

The pots should be nearly half-filled with small pieces of 
broken potsherds or of broken bricks, and the soil itself 
should be used rather coarse than fine, the surface being 
left rough, that is, not pressed down close and even. The 
pots should be set in pans or feeders, in which water should 
be kept so long as the soil does not become saturated. By 
this means, the soil may be kept at the required degree of 
continual dampness ; but if by any chance saturation seems 



24 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

to be taking place, the supply should be withheld for a time. 
A shady situation, under the influence of a temperature 
proper for the individual kinds, should be selected for these 
nursery pots. 

When all is in readiness, the spores should be thinly 
scattered over the rough surface of the soil, and the glass 
cover at once put on. It is necessary to be somewhat careful 
in the act of sowing, as the spores, from their lightness and 
minuteness, are liable to be dispersed in the atmosphere, 
instead of being lodged on the seed-bed prepared for them ; 
from the same cause, they are apt to cling about the surface 
of the paper even though it be glazed in which they may 
have been enclosed. A bell-glass may be employed to cover 
the soil after sowing, but we have been content to point out 
the simplest means and materials by which the end in view 
may be attained. 

A simple and convenient contrivance for sowing the 
spores, by which the progress of germination might be very 
readily watched, would consist in inverting a porous flower- 
pot in a shallow dish or pan of water, large enough to take 
also the rim of an enclosing bell-glass, which should cover 
some surface of the water. A small cup or vase, set on the 
top of the inverted pot, with two or three worsted siphons, 



PROPAGATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND CULTUEE. 25 

would keep its sides always damp ; the spores scattered 
over the sides of this moistened porous earthenware would 
find a proper nidus for their development, which might thus 
be watched with great facility. It is to be borne in mind, 
however, that the seedling plants are not so readily trans- 
planted from an earthenware or stone surface, as they are 
when growing on the soil. 

The general features of culture which it will be sufficient 
here to notice are shade, shelter, and abundance of mois- 
ture, neither of these being, however, essential to all the 
species, but when judiciously combined producing the con- 
ditions under which all the species admit of being very suc- 
cessfully grown. 

In the garden, Ferns seem only appropriately introduced 
on what is called rockwork, which generally means a bank 
of earth irregularly terraced with misshapen fragments of 
stone, or by some other hard porous material, the vitrified 
masses formed in the burning of bricks being that most 
commonly substituted. With taste in the distribution of 
these and such like materials, and in the planting of the 
Eerns, a very pleasing effect may be produced ; and on 
rockwork of this kind, if it be erected in a shaded and 
sheltered situation, and liberally supplied with percolating 



26 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

(not stagnant) water, nearly all the English Ferns may be 
grown. 

It will, as a matter of course, suggest itself to the planter, 
that the most sunny, most exposed, and least moistened 
positions on the rockwork should be appropriated to those 
species which grow naturally in situations to which these 
conditions afford the nearest resemblance ; while, on the 
other hand, the kinds which naturally prefer the deepest 
shade and the dampest soil, should be placed in the posi- 
tions where these conditions are most nearly imitated. 

Perhaps, however, the most interesting occupation for the 
amateur in Perns consists in the cultivation of them under 
glass, either in pots, or planted in a Wardian case. All the 
species admit of being grown in pots, and when developed 
under the protection of a covering of glass, acquire more 
than their natural delicacy of appearance. 

For general purposes the frame or case in which they 
are grown should have a northern aspect ; the eastern and 
western aspects are less favourable, though with attention 
to shading during sunny weather, they may be adopted, and 
are at least much preferable to the southern, even with the 
advantage of shading. It is the heat, no less than the 
brightness of such an aspect, which is to be avoided ; and 



PROPAGATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND CULTURE. 27 

therefore, for all practical purposes, the nearer the situation 
in which they are grown approaches the northern aspect, 
the better. The plants must be kept cool in summer, by 
shading, by sprinkling, by not quite closing the frame in 
the day-time, and by removing all impediments to a free 
circulation of air all night. 

Wardian cases for Ferns, in which they may be planted 
out on rockwork, may be either of the size and nature of a 
small detached greenhouse, or of those window or balcony 
greenhouses made by enclosing within a projecting sash, a 
greater or smaller area external to the window, or they may 
be of smaller size and more finished workmanship, for the 
interior of dwelling rooms, for stair-case landings, or any 
other situations within- doors, where they can be moderately 
lighted. 

As a general rule, Ferns under cultivation do not require 
any manure. The most proper soil for them consists of the 
native earths called peat or bog earth, and sandy loam, 
mixed in about equal proportions, with a further admixture 
equal to an eighth of the whole mass for the coarser sorts, 
and of a fourth of the whole mass for the more delicate 
sorts, of any clean sharp grit, which is used for the purpose 
of preventing the too close adhesion and consolidation of 



28 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

the particles ; the clean white sand, called Reigate sand, is 
that most generally employed. 

The supply of water to Ferns under artificial conditions 
is a very essential matter ; they must never lack moisture, 
or their fragile texture shrinks as before a burning blast ; 
nor, with few exceptions, must the soil about them be kept 
continually wet with stagnant water; indeed, stagnant 
water is in all cases to be avoided. 



DISTRIBUTION AND TOPOGRAPHICAL ASPECT. 

THE species of Ferns known to botanists, including the 
lesser groups sometimes separated from what have been 
called the ' ' true " Ferns, amount to something more than 
three thousand. Their head-quarters are the humid forests 
of tropical islands, in some of which they acquire a giant 
size, and in their tree-like habit become rivals to the noble 
Palms. The tree Ferns are not, however, numerous, the 
number of species having this habit bearing a small pro- 
portion to those of shrubby or herbaceous growth. 

From the statistics which have been collected in reference 
to this question, it appears that the Ferns bear a higher 
proportion to the flowering plants both towards the equator 
and towards the poles ; and that their proportional number 
is least in the middle of the temperate zone. They reach 
their absolute maximum in the torrid zone, amid the heat, 
moisture, and shade of the tropical forests ; and their 
absolute minimum on the inhospitable shores of the polar 
regions. 



30 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

The proportion borne by the Ferns to the whole mass of 
flowering plants, in the torrid zone, is stated at one in 
twenty ; in the temperate zone at one in seventy ; and in 
the frigid zone at an average of one in eight. In the most 
northern parts of the Arctic zone, none have yet been dis- 
covered. 

In onr own country, the proportion borne between these 
two great divisions of vegetation, is reckoned at one Pern 
to thirty-five flowering plants. In Scotland they stand re- 
latively as one in thirty-one. 

The forms which exist among the Ferns are very diversi- 
fied, and this, no less than their variations of size and habit, 
renders them conspicuous objects in the scenery where they 
abound. They may all be classed under three divisions, so 
far as their leading features are concerned, namely, arbores- 
cent, shrubby, and herbaceous. 

It is the former class, the arborescent species, chiefly, 
which exert a marked influence on the physiognomy of 
nature, for, as Meyen well remarks, they unite in themselves 
the majestic growth of the Palms, with the delicacy of the 
lower Ferns, and thus attain a beauty to which nature shows 
nothing similar. These truly arborescent species are prin- 
cipally confined to the torrid zone, their slender waving 



DISTRIBUTION AND TOPO GRAPHICAL ASPECT. 31 

trunks often beautifully pitted by the marks left on the 
falling away of the fronds ; they grow to a height of from 
twenty to fifty feet or more, from their tops sending out the 
feathery fronds, often many feet in length, and yet so 
delicate as to be put in motion by the gentlest breeze. On 
some of the East Indian Islands the tree Ferns occur as 
numerously as the crowded Firs in our plantations ; but 
wherever they are found from the plains to an elevation of 
3,000 to 4,000 feet the soil and atmosphere are full of 
moisture. Yery noble arborescent Ferns are found in New 
Zealand and Tasmania. 

The shrubby Ferns, those with short stems, surmounted 
by tufted fronds, prevail rather at the tropics than at the 
equatorial zone, and are found less frequently at the foot of 
tropical mountains, than at an elevation of from 2,000 to 
3,000 feet. Ferns of this aspect abound in the South Sea 
Islands. Mr. Colenso describes one of the New Zealand 
species as producing, from a main trunk twelve feet high, 
fronds which form a droop often of eighteen feet ; such 
plants, standing singly on the bank of a purling rill of 
water, being objects of surpassing beauty. 

The herbaceous species are rather characteristic of the 
temperate and colder zones : not that their number in 



32 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

warmer regions is less great, but their influence on the 
aspect of vegetation there is of a different character ; they 
are more frequently parasitic in the tropics, and by their 
varied forms and colours, and the way in which they fix 
themselves, they give an air of peculiar luxuriance to the 
higher vegetation. Even in the temperate regions some of 
these herbaceous Eerns attain considerable height, as is the 
case with the common Bracken, which, in the hedge-rows of 
sheltered rural lanes in the south of England, reaches the 
height of eight or ten feet, and assumes the most graceful 
habit that can be conceived. 

Wherever the Eerns occur, whether it be the herbaceous 
species of temperate climates, or the arborescent species of 
the equatorial regions, or the epiphytal species which clothe 
the trunks and branches of the trees in tropical forests, they 
add a marked and peculiar character of beauty and luxuri- 
ance to the scenery, and that to an extent which is not 
realized by any other race of plants. 



33 



THE USES OF FERNS. 

WE cannot make out a long catalogue of the uses of Ferns. 
Indeed, compared with their numbers and size, their useful- 
ness to man is very limited ; and the frigid utilitarian might 
be almost tempted to ask of Nature, wherefore she gave 
them birth. Her reply would, however, stay further inter- 
rogation : " They are given 

' To minister delight to man, 
To beautify the earth.' " 

The Ferns are not, moreover, altogether without their use ; 
for to the aborigines of various countries they furnish a 
rude means of subsistence. The pith of the stem or 
rhizome is the part usually employed for food, and this on 
account of the starch deposited in its tissue. Among the 
species which are thus employed as food chiefly, however, 
where civilization has not become the dispenser of better 
fare there is the Cyathea, medullaris, Marattia alata and 
elegans, Angwptens evecta; the Tasmanian Tara, Pteris 
esculenta ; Nephrodium esculentum, Diplazium esculentum, 

D 



34 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

and Gleichenia Hermanni ; and it is worth remark that these 
species represent almost all the principal groups into which 
Ferns are scientifically divided. 

But while the child of nature turns to the Fern for food, 
his more civilized brother seeks in it a medicine ; and he 
finds it ! Two of our common native species, the Filix-mas 
and the Bracken, especially the former, have the reputation 
of being remedies against intestinal worms, in consequence 
of their bitter and astringent qualities, which properties are 
possessed by the stems of many other species. Another 
native Fern, the Eoyal Fern, has been successfully used in 
cases of rickets. From the astringent mucilage present in 
the green parts of many of the species, they are reckoned 
pectoral and lenitive ; and both the native Adiantum 
Capillus-Veneris, and the American Adiantum pedatum, are 
thus employed in the form of capillaire, which is prepared 
from them by pouring boiling syrup over the fronds, and 
flavouring it with orange flowers ; this preparation is con- 
sidered undoubtedly pectoral, though if too strong it is said 
to be emetic. Other species of Adiantum, as well as some 
Polypodium&, AcrosticJiums, and Noihochl&na*, are reported 
to possess medicinal properties. 

Both the common Bracken and the Male Fern abound 



THE USES OF FERNS. 35 

in alkali, and are applied to various economic uses, as 
the manufacture of soap and glass, the dressing of leather, 
&c. These species have also been used in the preparation 
of beer ; and the Aspidium fragrant has been employed as 
a substitute for tea. 

The bruised leaves of Angwpteris evecta and Polypodium 
phymatodes are said to yield an aromatic oil, employed in 
perfuming the cocoa-nut oil of the South Sea Islands. 

Deserving of especial mention in this place is the vegetable 
curiosity called the Barometz, Boranez, or Tartarian or 
Scythian lamb, of which marvellous tales have been told. 
This "lamb" consists merely of the decumbent shaggy 
rhizome of a Pern, what it has been supposed is that of the 
Cibotmm Barometz ; when turned upside down, the bases of 
four of its fronds being retained as legs, by the aid of a little 
manipulation, this not inaptly resembles some small animal, 
and may fairly rank as a vegetable curiosity. 

The 'traveller's tale' on this subject is, that, on an ele- 
vated, uncultivated salt plain, of vast extent, west of the 
Volga, grows a wonderful plant, with the shape and appear- 
ance of a lamb, having feet, head, and tail distinctly formed, 
and its skin covered with soft down. The ' lamb' grows 
upon a stalk about three feet high, the part by which it is 



36 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

sustained being a kind of navel ; it turns about and bends 
to the herbage, which serves for its food, and when the grass 
fails it dries up, and pines away. The real facts are, that 
the rhizome of tin's plant, as already stated, does present a 
rude appearance of an animal ; it is covered with silky down, 
and, if cut into, is seen to have a soft inside, with a reddish 
flesh-coloured appearance. And no doubt when the herbage 
of its native plains fails, its leaves, too, dry up, both perish- 
ing from the same cause, but having no dependence the one 
on the other. Thus it is that simple people have been per- 
suaded, that in the deserts of Scythia there existed creatures 
which were half animal, half plant. 



37 



SELECTION AND PRESERVATION FOR THE HERBARIUM. 

FERNS are amongst the best of all plants for preservation in 
the form of an herbarium ; for in addition to their elegant 
appearance when nicely dried and arranged on sheets of clean 
white paper, they are less liable than most plants to the 
attacks of the destructive pests in the shape of insects, 
which commit such havoc among dried plants in general. 
We must give our inexperienced readers a few hints on the 
selection of specimens for this purpose. 

The process of drying we need not describe in detail ; we 
shall merely remark, that they should be dried quickly, 
under moderately heavy pressure, among sheets of absorbent 
paper, which must be replaced by dried sheets as long as the 
plants continue to give out moisture. The thicker the bulk 
of paper placed between the specimens whilst under pressure, 
the better. Two or three changes will generally be sufficient, 
if the substituted sheets be in each case perfectly dry. 

The smaller growing kinds should be gathered, if possible, 
in the tufts as they grow, preserving the whole mass of 



38 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

fronds, with the stem and roots, the fronds being spread out 
in an easy and graceful form, and as far as possible kept 
quite flat, but not formally ' laid out ' so as to destroy any 
peculiarity of habit which the species may possess. 

If entire tuffcs cannot be obtained, and single fronds have 
to be substituted, they should be taken quite to the base, 
and must be removed from the stem with care, so that the 
scales, or hairs, or farinose powder, which may be present 
on the stalk, may be preserved equally with the frond itself. 

Of larger growing species, single fronds only are manage- 
able, and these, when of larger size than the folios in which 
the specimens are to be kept, must be folded to somewhat 
less than the length of the papers, whilst yet fresh. 

Of the gigantic species, portions only of the fronds, cor- 
responding in size with the paper to be used, can be pre- 
served; but all of our native species, except in cases of 
extreme luxuriance, may, we believe, with a little judgment 
in the selection of specimens, be folded so as to allow of 
their being preserved in ordinary folios measuring eighteen 
inches by twelve inches, or thereabouts. 

It is sometimes recommended to select specimens with the 
fructification mature. We should rather, as a general rule, 
advise their being gathered before the masses of spores reach 



PRESERVATION FOR THE HERBARIUM. 39 

their fall growth. If, however, more than a single speci- 
men of each kind is preserved, the perfectly mature and the 
incipient states of fructification should also be gathered ; 
but in the majority of cases the intermediate state will 
afford the best materials for subsequent examination and 
recognition. 

Of course, when the species produces two or more kinds of 
fronds, examples of each must be preserved, as, for instance, 
in the Allosorus crispus, the fertile fronds of winch alone 
would convey but a very indifferent notion of the plant. 
The necessity of attending to this point is even more strik- 
ingly apparent in such exotic genera as the Strutkiopteris, 
and almost all the species related to the Acrosticliums. 

After being thoroughly dried under pressure, the speci- 
mens, according to their size, should be arranged, singly if 
large, or in groups resembling the natural tufts, if sufficiently 
small, on one side only of a series of sheets of stout white 
paper, to which they should be fastened by a few thread 
ties, or gummed straps, in preference to being pasted down 
with glue. The specimens, however, admit of a much more 
convenient and searching examination when kept loose in a 
folded sheet of paper ; but if there should be frequent occa- 
sion to handle such loose Specimens, they will be found much 



40 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

more liable to become injured and broken than such as are 
fastened to the paper. 

The specimens should be fully labelled, the labels giving 
at least their names, the locality where gathered, and the 
date ; and these labels should, as far as possible, be fixed 
with some degree of uniformity as to their position, so as to 
be readily referred to by turning up one of the corners of 
the sheets of paper. 

The papers to which the specimens are affixed should be 
enclosed in paper covers, each genus separately ; and these 
covers should be placed either on the shelves of a cabinet, 
or in drawers, or in any convenient place where they may 
be preserved against dust, the attacks of insects, and other 
casualties. 



41 



THE CLASSIFICATION OF FERNS. 

THE first notions of classifying the Ferns, if we may judge 
from the Latin sentences which served as names for them in 
former times, were derived chiefly from the size, form, and 
general resemblance of the fronds, and the situations in 
which they grew. As, however, the knowledge of their 
structure and organization became extended, the insufficiency 
of such means of distinction and arrangement became appa- 
rent ; and when the great Swedish botanist, Linnaeus, set 
about the task of distributing the plants known to him, into 
family groups, he selected the fructification as the leading 
character of association, his groups of Eerns being formed 
from the resemblances in the form and position of the 
clusters of ' seed-vessels/ which we have already mentioned 
(p. 17), under the name of spore-cases. 

Those who immediately succeeded him did but carry out 
to greater perfection, in accordance with increasing know- 
ledge, the same general idea of family relationship, the most 
important additional characteristic called into requisition 
being that derived from the presence or absence of a general 



HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

investing membrane or cover to the spore-cases,, and its 
form,, origin., and mode of bursting when present. This, in 
fact, brings us to the basis of the classification which has 
prevailed till within comparatively very few years, and even, 
to some extent, to the present time. 

Another feature has, however, latterly been adopted by 
many botanists skilled in the knowledge of Perns, as forming 
the leading characteristic of their family relationship, the 
groups thus brought together representing the modern classi- 
fication of Perns. The feature thus adopted, as affording 
the marks of family recognition, is the veining of the fronds ; 
and probably, as at present employed, in conjunction with the 
characters derived from the clusters of spore-cases and their 
covers, there is but little scope for further improvement. 
The tendency of the system is, however, towards subdivision 
of the family groups, and in this direction it is perhaps 
somewhat liable to err. "We shall introduce a summary of 
the groups and species adapted to Mr. John Smith's plan of 
arrangement, in accordance with the venation ; the picture 
presented by our few native species must riot, however, be 
taken as a proper representation of this system of classifica- 
tion. In the more detailed descriptions it will be more con- 
venient if we follow an alphabetical order. 



A TABLE OF THE GROUPS AND GENERA OF THE BRITISH 
FERNS AND ALLIED PLANTS. 

I. PEBNS FILICES. 

Plowerless plants, bearing seed-vessels (spore-cases) on 

the backs or margins of their leaves (fronds). The 

British Perns belong to gronps which are called 

Polypodiacea, Osmundacea, and Opkioglossacea. 

i. POLYPODIACES = Perns having the leaves rolled up in a 

circinate or crozier-like manner while young, and the 

spore-cases girt with an elastic ring, and bursting in 

an irregular manner. It comprises the lesser groups 

of Polypodies, Aspidiece, Aspleniea, Pteridea, and 

Dicksoniea. 

A. POLYPODIES = Perns whose clusters of spore-cases 
have no special membranous cover (indusium). It 
contains the genera Polypodlum and Allosorus. 
1. Poly podium = Dorsal-fruited Perns, with the sori 
exposed. 



44 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

2. Allosorus = Dorsal -fruited Perns, with, the sori 

covered by reflexed, unaltered margins of the frond. 

B. ASPIDIEJS= Perns whose sori have a special indusium, 

of a circular or roundish form, and springing here 
and there, from the back of the veins. It contains 
the genera Wood&a, Lastrea, Polystichum, and 
Cystopteris. 

3. Woodsia = Dorsal-fruited Perns, having the in- 

dusium attached beneath the sori, and divided 
into hair-like segments. 

4. Lastrea = Dorsal-fruited Perns, having a reniform 

indusium, attached by its indented side. 

5. PolysticJium = Dorsal-fruited Perns, having a cir- 

cular indusium, attached by its centre. 

6. (^fo^fem==Dorsal-fruited Perns, having a cucullate 

or hooded indusium, attached by its broad base. 

C. ASPLENIE^: = Perns whose sori have a special indusium, 

of an oblong or elongated form, and springing from 
the sides of the veins. It contains the genera 
AtJiyrium, Asplenium, Ceterach, and Scolopendrium. 

7. AtJiyrium = Dorsal- fruited Perns, having an oblong 

reniform indusium, attached by its concave side, 
the other side fringed with hair-like segments. 



TABLE OF GENERA. 45 

8. Aspleninm = Dorsal-fruited Perns, having the in- 

dusium straight and elongate, and attached 
by the side towards the margin of the pinnae or 
pinnules. 

9. CeteracJi = Dorsal-fruited Ferns, having the indu- 

sium obsolete, and the sori hidden among densely 
imbricated, rust-coloured, chaffy scales. 

10. Scolopendrium = Dorsal-fruited Perns, having the 

sori elongate, and proximate in parallel pairs, the 
indusium opening along the centre of the twin 
sorus. 

D. PTERIDE,E = Perns, the margin of whose fronds is 
either soriferous, and continuously or interruptedly 
changed into a special indusium, or whose spore- 
cases are in lines parallel with the margin. It con- 
tains the genera Pteris, Adiantum, and Blecknum. 

11. Pteris = Dorsal -fruited Perns, having the spore- 

cases in a continuous line at the edge of the 
frond, beneath an indusium formed of the altered 
margin. 

12. Adiantum = Dorsal -fruited Perns, having the 

spore-cases in patches, on the reflexed, altered 
apices of the lobes of the fronds. 



46 HISTORY OF BRITISH FE11NS. 

1 3 . BlecJmwm = Dorsal-fruited Ferns, having the spore- 

cases in a continuous line between the midrib and 
margin of the divisions of the frond. 
E. DICKSONIE^ = Perns whose sori are (in the British 
species) produced around the ends of veins project- 
ing from the margin, and surrounded by an urn- 
shaped or two-valved membrane. It contains the 
genera Trickomanes and Hymenopkyllum. 

14. Trichomanes = Marginal-fruited Terns, having the 
sori surrounded by urn-shaped expansions of the 
frond. 

15. Hymenophyllum = Marginal-fruited Perns, having 
the sori surrounded by two-valved expansions of 
the frond. 

ii. OSMUND ACE^E= Perns having the young leaves circinate, 
the spore-cases destitute of an elastic ring, and burst- 
ing by two regular valves. It contains the genus 
Osmunda. 

16. Osmunda = Marginal-fruited Perns, having the 
regular valved spore-cases in irregular, dense, 
branching clusters, terminating the fronds. 

iii. OPHIOGLOSSACE.E = Perns having the young leaves folded 
up straight, the spore-cases destitute of an elastic ring, 



TABLE OF GENEEA. 47 

and two-valved. It contains the genera BoUyckwm 
and Oplnoglossum. 

1 7 . OpJdoglossum = Marginal-fruited Ferns, having the 
spore-cases sessile in two-ranked simple spikes 
terminating a separate branch of the frond. 

18. Botn/chium = Marginal-fruited Ferns, having the 

spore- cases in irregularly branched clusters, on a 
separate branch of the frond. 

II. CLUB-MOSSES LYCOPODIACES& 

Plowerless plants, bearing spore-cases in the axils of 
their leaves, and having reproductive bodies of two 
different kinds, but of a similar nature. They con- 
sist of the genus Lycopodium. 

19. Lycopodmm = Moss-like plants, with leafy stems, 
having the fructifications elevated in terminal 
spikes, or in the axils of the leaves. 

III. PEPPEKWOETS MARSILEACEJE. 

Flowerless plants, bearing axillary or radical spore- 
cases, and reproductive bodies of two dissimilar 
sorts. They comprise the genera Isoetes and 
Pilularia. 



48 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

20. Tsoetes = Stemless, quill-leaved, aquatic plants, 

with the fructifications at the base, enclosed within 
the bases of the leaves. 

21. Pilularia = Creeping, slender -leaved, aquatic 
plants, with the fructification in globular, sessile, 
four-celled spore-cases. 

IY. HOESETAILS EQUISETACE^. 

Elowerless plants, with peltate spore-cases, arranged in 
terminal cones. This group consists of the genus 
Equisetum. 

22. Equisetum = Jointed, tubular-stemmed .plants, with 

terminal cones of fructification. 



A TABLE OF THE SPECIES AND VARIETIES OF BRITISH 

FERNS, &c. 

* 

I. FILICES. 

A. POLYPODIACE^S POLYPODIES. 

i. POLYPODIUM, Linnaus. 

1. P. vulgare, Lmnczus. Fronds pinnatifid. Plate I. 

fig. 2. 
d. cambricum. Fronds twice pinnatifid. 

2. P. Phegopteris, Linnceus. Fronds sub-pinnate. 

Plate II. fig. 2. 

3. P. Dryopteris, Linnaus* Fronds ternate, glabrous. 

Plate II. fig. 1. 

4. P. calcareum, Smith. Fronds ternate, glandular- 

mealy. Plate III. fig. 1. 
ii. ALLOSOEUS, Bernhardi. 

1. A. crispus, BernJiardi. The only species. Plate Y. 

%. i. 

B. POLYPODIACE^ ASPIDIE^3. 

iii. WOODSIA, R. Brown. 

E 



50 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

1. W. ilvensis, R. Brown. Pinnse oblong, deeply 

lobed. Plate III. fig. 2. 

2. W. hyperborea, R. Brown. Pinnse bluntly triangu- 

lar, lobed. Plate IY. fig. 1. 
iv. LASTREA, PresL 

1. L. Thelypteris, PresL Fronds pinnate, not glan- 

dular ; sori sub-marginal on sub-contracted fronds. 
Plate VI. fig. 1. 

2. L. Oreopteris, PresL Fronds pinnate, glandular 

beneath. Plate VII. 

3. L. Filix-mas, PresL Fronds sub-bipinnate or bi- 

pinnate, broadly lanceolate. Plate VIII. 

b. incisa. Larger, pinnules elongate, with deep 

serrated incisions. 

c. abbreviata. Smaller, pinnules contracted or 
obsolete. 

d. multifida. Pinnse tasselled at the end. Plate 

VIII. upper figure. 

4. L. rigida, PresL Fronds bipinnate, without spinu- 

lose serratures, glandular. Plate IX. fig. 1. 

5. L. cristata, PresL Fronds pinnate or sub-bipin- 

nate, narrow linear, pinnules oblong. Plate VI. 
fig. 2. 



TABLE OF SPECIES AND VARIETIES. 51 

b. uliginosa. Fronds (fertile) bipixmate at the base, 
pinnules oblong, acute. 

6. L. spinulosa, Presl. Fronds linear, bipinnate, with 

spinulose serratures, scales ovate. 

7. L. dilatata, Presl. Fronds oblong- or ovate-lan- 

ceolate, bi-tri-pinnate, with spinulose serratures, 
scales lanceolate. Plate IX. fig. 2. 
b. collina. Pinnules ovate, blunt, bluntly mucro- 
nate-serrate. 

8. L. fo3nisecii, Watson. Fronds triangular, bipinnate, 

pinnules concave above. 

V. POLYSTICHUM, Roth. 

1. P. Lonchitis, Roth. Fronds pinnate. Plate IV. 

fig. 2. 

2. P. aculeatum, Roth. Frond bipinnate, pinnules 

acutely wedge-shaped at the base. 
b. lobatum. Fronds narrower, pinnules nearly all 
decurrent. Plate IV. fig. 3. 

3. P. angulare, Newman. Fronds bipinnate, pinnules 

obtusely angled at the base, stalked. PI. V. fig. 2. 
b. subtripinnatum. Pinnules pinnatifid. 
vi. CYSTOPTEEIS, Bernhardi. 

1. C. fragilis, Bernhardi. Fronds lanceolate, bipin- 



52 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

nate, pinnules ovate, acute; sori central. Plate X. 
fig. 1. 

b. dentata. Pinnules ovate, obtuse, distinct; sori 
marginal. 

c. Dickieana. Pinnules broad, obtuse, overlapping ; 

sori marginal. 

2. C. alpina, Desvaux. Fronds sub-tripinnate, seg- 

ments linear. Plate X. fig. 2. 

3. C. montana, Link. Fronds triangular. Plate XIV. 

fig. 2. 

C. POLYPODIACE^ ASPLENIE^}. 

vii. ATHYEIUM, Both. 

1. A. Filix-foemina, Both. The only species. Pinnules 
flat, linear-oblong. Plate XI. 

d. convexum. Pinnules narrow, distinct, linear, 
convex. 

c. latifolium. Pinnules broad ovate, crowded, irre- 

gularly lobed. 

d. molle. Pinnules oblong, flat, decurrent. 

e. multifidum. Pinnae and frond tasselled at the 

apex. Plate XI. 

f. crispum Dwarf, irregularly branched, with the 
ends tasselled. 



TABLE OP SPECIES AND VARIETIES. 53 

g. marinum. Fronds narrowed to the base, decum- 
bent, pinnules oblong, rachis winged, 
viii. ASPLENIUM, Linn&us. 

1. A. septentrionale, Hull. Frond linear-lanceolate, 

two-three-cleft. Plate XII. fig. 3. 
. A. germanicum, Weiss. Fronds linear, alternately 
pinnate, pinnae narrow wedge-shaped ; indusium 
entire. Plate XIII. fig. 3. 

3. A. Ruta-inuraria, Lwntew. Fronds bipinnate, pin- 

nules wedge-shaped at the base ; indusium jagged. 
Plate XIII. fig. 1. 

4. A. viride, Hudson. Fronds linear, pinnate, rachis 

green above. Plate XIII. fig. 4. 

5. A. Trichomanes, Linnteus. Fronds linear, pinnate, 

rachis black throughout. Plate XIII. fig. 5. 
b. incisum. Pinnse deeply lobed. 

6. A. marinum, Lmnaus. Fronds pinnate, rachis 

winged. Plate XI Y. fig. 1. 

7. A. fontanum, R. Brown. Fronds bipinnate, narrow 

lanceolate, rachis winged, smooth. Plate XIII. 
fig. 2. 

8. A. lanceolatum, Hudson. Fronds bipinnate, broad 

lanceolate, rachis not winged, scaly. PL XII. fig. 1. 



54 HISTORY OP BRITISH FERNS. 

9. A. Adiantum-nigrum, Linnaus. Frond bipinnate, 

triangular. Plate XII. fig. 2. 
ix. CETERACH, Wittdenow. 

1. C. officinaruin, Willdenow. The only species. 

Plate I. fig. 1. 
x. SCOLOPENDRIUM, Smith. 

1. S. vulgare, Symons. The only species. Fronds 
strap-shaped, entire. Plate XV. fig. 1. 

b. polyschides. Fronds narrow, irregularly lobed, 
fertile. 

c. crispum. Fronds much undulated at the margin, 
usually barren. 

d. multifidum. Fronds multifid at the apex. 
D. POLYPODIACE^ PTERIDE^E. 

xi. PTERIS, Linnteus. 

1. P. aquilina, Linnmis. The only species. 

a. vera. Inferior pinnules pinnatifid. 

b. integerrima. All the pinnules entire. Plate 
XVII. fig. 1. 

xii. ADIANTUM, Linnaeus. 

1. A. Capillus-Veneris, Linnaus. The only species. 
Plate XVI. fig. 1. 



TABLE OF SPECIES AND VARIETIES. 55 

xiii. BLECHNTTM, Linnceus. 

1. B. Spicant, Both. The only species. Plate XYI. 
fig. 2. 

E. POLYPODIACE^ DlCKSONIEJS. 

xiv. TRICHOMANES, Linnaus. 

1. T. radicans, Swartz. The only species. Plate 

XVIII. fig. 1. 

xv. HYMENOPHYLLUM, Smith. 

1. II. tunbridgense, $^7*. Pinnae vertical, involucres 

compressed, serrate. Plate XY. fig. 2. 

2. H. unilateral Willdenow. Pinnse unilateral, in- 

volucres inflated, entire. Plate XV. fig. 3. 

F. OSMUNDACE^E. 

xvi. OSMTJNDA, Linnaus. 

1. O. regalis, I/innteus. The only species. Plate 

XIX. fig. 2. 

G. OPHIOGLOSSACE^E. 

xvii. OPHIOGLOSSUM, Linnaus. 

1. 0. vulgatum, Linnceus. The only species. Plate 

XVIII. fig. 3. 
xviii. BOTRYCHIUM, Linnteus. 

1. B. Lunaria, Linnaeus. The only species. Plate 
XVIII. fig. 2. 



56 HISTOKY OF BRITISH PEENS. 

II. LYCOPODIACE.E. 

xix. LYCOPODIUM, Linn&us. 

1. L. alpinum, Linnam. Leaves in four rows, ap- 

pressed ; spikes solitary, sessile. 

2. L. Selago, Linnceus. Leaves in eight rows, imbri- 

cated on the usually erect stems ; fructifications 
in the axils of leaves, not spiked. PL XX. fig. 5. 

3. L. annotinum, Zfinnceus. Leaves indistinctly five- 

rowed, linear-lanceolate, patent; spikes solitary, 
sessile. 

4. L. clavatuin, Itinnteus. Leaves scattered, incurved, 

hair-pointed; spikes two or more on a stalk. 
Plate XX. fig. 6. 

5. L. inundatum, Linntzus. Leaves scattered, curved 

upwards, linear; spikes solitary, sessile. Plate 
XX. fig. 4. 

6. L. selaginoides, Linnaus. Leaves scattered, half- 

spreading, lanceolate; spikes solitary, sessile. 

III. MAESILEACE.E. 

xx. ISOETES, I/inntem. 

1. I. lacustris, Linnteus. The only species. Plate 
XIX. fig. 1. 



TABLE OP SPECIES AND VARIETIES. 57 

xxi. PILTJLAKIA, Jjinnteus. 

1. P. globulifera ; Linnaus. The only species. Plate 
XYIL fig. 2. 

IV. EQUISETACE^. 

xxii. EQUISETUM, Linnceus. 

1. E. Telmateia, Ekrhart. Stems dissimilar, the sterile 

branched, smooth, with about thirty ridges, the 
fertile simple, short, with large crowded sheaths, 
and subulate two-ribbed teeth. Plate XX. fig. 2. 

2. E. umbrosum, Willdenow. Stems dissimilar, the 

sterile branched, rough, with about twenty ridges, 
the fertile simple, with approximate appressed 
sheaths, having subulate one-ribbed teeth. 
8. E. arvense, Linn&us. Stems dissimilar, the sterile 
branched, slightly rough, with from ten to 
sixteen ridges, the fertile simple, with distant, 
loose sheaths, having long pointed teeth. 

4. E. sylvaticum, Linnceus. Stems similar, with about 

twelve ridges, and having loose sheaths termi- 
nating in three or four large blunt lobes; 
branches deflexed. Plate XX. fig. 3. . 

5. E. limosum, Linnaus. Stems similar, smooth, with 



58 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

numerous slight ridges, the sheaths green, close, 
with from sixteen to twenty sharp-pointed dark- 
coloured teeth; branches short, few, often wanting. 

6. E. palustre, Linn&us. Stems similar, slightly 

rough, with from six to eight broad prominent 
ridges, the sheaths pale, loose, with acute wedge- 
shaped, brown-tipped teeth; branches erect. 

7. E. Mackaii, Newman. Stems similar, very rough, 

with from eight to twelve ridges, and having close 
sheaths, which alternately become wholly black, 
and have narrow subulate teeth ; almost branchless. 

8. E. hyemale, Linnatts. Stems similar, very rough, 

with from fourteen to twenty ridges, and having 
close whitish sheaths banded with black at the top 
and bottom ; the teeth slender, deciduous ; almost 
branchless. Plate XX. fig. 1. 

9. E. variegatum, Weber et Mokr. Stems similar, very 

rough, with from four to ten ridges, and having 
slightly enlarged sheaths, green below, black 
above, with obtuse teeth tipped by a deciduous 
bristle ; almost branchless. 
b. Wilsoni. Stems less rough, taller. 



59 



THE BRITISH FERNS. 

" Sweet to muse upon His skill display'd 
(Infinite skill) in all that He has made ! 
To trace in Nature's most minute design 
The signature and stamp of power Divine ; 
Contrivance intricate, express'd with ease, 
Where uninstructed sight no beauty sees ! " 

Genus XII. ADIANTUM,* Linnaus. 

THE Adiantum, or Maiden-hair, may be known among the 
British Ferns by its almost fan-shaped leaflets or pinnules, 
which are attached by their narrow end, to the little black 
hair-like stalks. This, however, though sufficient by which 
to recognize it, among the very limited number of kinds 
which are found in a wild state in Britain, is not its proper 
distinctive mark. The real characteristics lie in the veins 
and in the sori : the former may be readily seen by holding 
a pinnule between the eye and a strong light, and the latter 
by lifting up the little reflexed lobes which occur here and 

* The Genera are arranged for facility of reference in alphabetical order. 
Their place in the systematic arrangement is denoted by their No., which 
agrees with the preceding Table. 



60 HISTORY Or BRITISH FERNS. 

there at the margin on the under surface. The veins will 
be seen to be dichotornously forked, that is, separating into 
two equal branches, beginning from the base upwards, the 
forking being several times repeated, producing close pa- 
rallel radiating venules which extend to the margin. The 
sori are produced on the reflexed (or bent under) membra- 
nous expansions of the margin of the fronds which form the 
indusia, these indusia being traversed by veins which bear 
the sori. There is only one native species, which possesses 
these characteristics, and this is certainly one of the most 
beautiful, as it is also one of the rarer of our indigenous 
Ferns ; and being of small size and of evergreen habit, it is 
one of the most desirable of all for culture in a Wardian case. 

The name of the genus comes from the Greek adiantos, 
which signifies dry, or unmoistened ; and is applicable to 
these plants, from their possessing in a remarkable degree 
the property of repelling water. It is, in fact, impossible to 
wet the surface of their pinnules, when the fronds are in a 
fresh state and in good health, the water being cast off as 
though from an oily surface. 

ADIANTUM CAPILLUS-VENEEIS, Linnteus. The Maiden- 
hair Pern. (Plate XYI. fig. 1.) 

A small evergreen species, furnished with a very short 



ADIANTUM. 61 

creeping stem, which is clothed with small black scales, and 
bears delicate, graceful, somewhat drooping fronds, of six 
inches to a foot high. These fronds are usually of an 
irregularly ovate form, sometimes elongate, occasionally 
approaching to linear. Finely developed fronds are about 
thrice pinnate; but the less vigorous fronds are usually 
only twice pinnate, with alternate pinnae and pinnules ; and 
sometimes fronds are found which are only once pinnate. 
The ultimate pinnules, or leaflets, are very irregular in shape, 
but for the most part have a wedge-shaped or tapering 
base, and a more or less rounded and oblique apex, and 
they have generally some variation of a fan-shaped or rhom- 
boidal outline. The margin is more or less deeply lobed, 
the apices of the lobes in the fertile pinnules being reflexed 
and changed into membranous indusia, whilst the lobes of 
the barren fronds are serrated ; their texture is thin and 
membranaceous, their surface smooth, their colour a 
cheerful green. The stipes, which is about half as long as 
the frond, and furnished with a few small scales at the base, 
is black and shining, as also are the raches, the ultimate 
ramifications of which are small and hair-like. 

The veins throughout the pinnules are forked on a di- 
chotomous or two-branched plan, from the base upwards, 



62 HISTOllY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

the venules lying parallel, and extending in straight lines 
towards the margins, terminating in the barren fronds 'in 
the serratures of the margin, but in the fertile fronds 
extending into the indusium, there forming the receptacles 
to which the spore-cases are attached. The sori are oblong, 
covered by indusia of the same form, each consisting of the 
apex of one of the lobes of the frond, changed to a mem- 
branous texture, and folded under. The sori are, as already 
mentioned, seated on this membranous reflexed lobe, and 
by this circumstance the genus may at once be detected by 
those who are not conversant with its easily recognized 
prima facie appearances. 

The Maiden-hair is a local plant, though it has a wide 
geographical range. It is found here and there in the 
warmer parts of Great Britain and Ireland, evidently pre- 
ferring cavernous and rocky situations within the influence 
of the sea. What is believed to be the same species is 
found in the warmer parts of Europe, in Asia, in the north 
of Africa, and in the Canaries arid Cape de Yerd Islands. 

It is, moreover, a tender plant, and does not thrive under 
cultivation in the climate even of the south of England, 
unless sheltered in a frame or green-house, or by being 
covered with a glass. In a Wardian case it grows well ; 



ALLOSOEUS. 63 

and attains great luxuriance in a damp hot-house. The 
proper soil for it is very light turfy peat, mixed with a con- 
siderable proportion of silver sand, and it is beneficial to 
plant it on or around a small lump of free sandstone. 



Genus IT. ALLOSOEUS, Bernhardi. 

OF this family we have but one British species, the Allo- 
sorus crispus. It is known from all its fellow-country-ferns 
by the coincidence of the following features. It bears fronds 
of two kinds, one being leafy and barren, or without sori, 
the other contracted, and bearing sori, and hence called 
fertile. The edges of the lobes of the fertile fronds are 
rolled under (which is what gives them the contracted ap- 
pearance), and covers the sori in the stead of a special in- 
dusium ; the sori when young form distinct circular clusters 
beneath this recurved margin, but as they grow they join 
laterally (in technical language, they become confluent), 
forming two lines of fructification lengthwise the segments 
of the fronds. 

The name Allosorus is compounded from the Greek, and 
comes from alias, which means various, and sorus, which 



64 HISTORI OP BRITISH FERNS. 

means a heap ; the intention being to indicate the variation 
or change which occurs in the apparent arrangement of the 
sori, from the distinct patches to the continuous lines in 
which they are seen to be disposed, if examined at different 
stages of development the change, after all, being only 
apparent, and not real. 

ALLOSORUS CRISPUS, Bernhardi. The Rock Brakes, or 
Mountain Parsley. (Plate V. fig. 1.) 

This elegant little plant, which has considerable first-sight 
resemblance to a tuft of parsley, and is hence sometimes 
called Mountain Parsley, grows in a dense tuft, throwing up 
its fronds in May or June, and losing them in the course 
of the autumn. The fronds average about six inches in 
height, and are generally almost triangular, with a longish, 
slender, smooth stalk. They are of two kinds ; both kinds 
twice or thrice pinnate, and of a pale green colour. The 
segments into which the fruitless fronds are cut, are more 
or less wedge-shaped, and notched or cleft at the end. The 
fertile fronds have the segments df an oval or oblong or 
linear form. 

The divisions of the fertile frond have a slightly tor- 
tuous midvein, producing simple or forked venules which 
extend nearly to the margin, each, for the most part, bearing 



Plate V. 




ASPLENIUM. 65 

near its extremity a circular sorus. There is no true indu- 
sium, but the sori are covered by the reflexed and partially 
bleached margins which almost meet behind, and by which 
they are quite concealed. These patches are at first distinct, 
but ultimately meet laterally. 

The Eock Brakes is a mountain Fern, choosing to grow in 
stony situations. It is comparatively rare and local ; most 
abundant in the north of England and Wales, and less 
plentiful in Scotland and Ireland. It grows readily in pots, 
and also in a Wardian case, for either of which modes of 
cultivation its small size and elegant aspect render it a very 
desirable object. 

This Eern has been called by several other names, of 
which the principal are Cryptogramma crispa, Pier is 
crispa, and Osmunda crispa. The two latter are now quite 
obsolete. 



Genus VIII. ASPLENIUM, Linnaus. 

THE British Aspleniums are small evergreen Eerns, with 
long narrow single sori lying in the direction of the veins 
which traverse them; and by these marks they may be 



66 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

known from all other indigenous Ferns, excepting the Ce- 
terach, which latter is readily distinguished from them by 
having the back of its fronds coated with brown scales, 
among which the sori are hidden. They are the types of 
the tribe A-Spleniece, which consists of Ferns having the 
elongate masses of fructification attached along the side of 
the veins, and covered by an indusium of the same elongated 
form as the sori themselves. The Aspleniums are known 
from their nearest allies, the Atliyriums, by the latter having 
the free margin of the indusium fringed with capillary or 
hair-like segments, while the margin of the indusium of As- 
plenium is either quite entire or very slightly jagged. There 
are nine species of Asplenlum indigenous to Britain, and all 
of them are interesting to the cultivators of Ferns. 

The word Asplenium comes from the Greek asplenon ; a 
name applied by old authors to some kind of Fern possessed 
of supposed virtues in curing diseases of the spleen. 

ASPLENIUM ADIANTUM-NIGRUM, Linnceus. The Black 
Spleenwort. (Plate XII. fig. 2.) 

This is a rather common evergreen Fern, and a very con- 
spicuous ornament of the situations where it occurs in a 
vigorous state. The fronds grow in tufts, and vary much 
in size, from a height of three or four inches when it occurs 



ASPLENIUM. 67 

on walls, to a foot and a half and even two feet including 
the stipes, when it occurs on shady hedge-banks in con- 
genial soil. The fronds are triangular, more or less elon- 
gated at the point, the shining dark purple stipes being 
often as long as, or longer than, the leafy portion, but in 
stunted plants growing in sterile situations very much 
shorter; they grow erect or drooping, according to the 
situations in which they occur. They are bipinnate, or some- 
times tripinnate ; the pinnse pinnate, triangular- ovate, drawn 
out at the point, the lower pair always longer than the next 
above them. The pinnules, especially those on the larger 
pinna3, are again pinnate; the alternate pinnules being 
deeply lobed, and the margins sharply serrate. 

The fronds are of a thick leathery texture, with numerous 
veins. To each pinnule there is a distinct midvein or prin- 
cipal vein, bearing simple or branched veuules, on which 
the sori are produced. All the ultimate divisions of the 
fronds, as well as all the larger lobes, have midveins pro- 
ducing these simple or branched venules, and these bear the 
sori near their junction with the midvein, so that the sori 
are placed near the centre of every pinnule or lobe. At 
first the sori are distinct, and have the elongate narrow 
form common to this genus, but as they become older they 



68 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

often spread and become confluent, so that almost the 
entire under-surface of the frond is covered with the spore- 
cases. The indusium is narrow, with its free margin entire ; 
this soon becomes pushed away by the growing sori, and 
is lost. 

This species is very variable. In dry and exposed places 
it is small, and obtuse in its parts, whilst in sheltered, 
shady places it is much drawn out or elongated. The ex- 
treme states have been considered as varieties ; and it is 
true that occasionally there occur plants of which this blunt- 
ness seems characteristic, and to these the name of obtusum 
is sometimes given ; while on the other hand, sometimes, 
but rarely, the form in which all the parts are much nar- 
rowed and very acute is met with, and this is called acutum. 
These differences become less marked in the cultivated plants 
than in those which occur in a wild state, and hence they 
seem hardly to deserve to be considered as permanent 
varieties. The species has also been met with having the 
fronds variegated with white. 

The ordinary forms of the plant are very commonly met 
with growing on rocks or old walls, and on hedge-banks in 
a sandy soil. The latter situations, where they grow most 
vigorously, are often beautifully adorned by the drooping 



ASPUENIUM. 69 

tufts in which they occur. The extreme forms are more 
rare. 

This is one of the more useful evergreen Terns for shady 
rockwork, as it will grow with freedom if planted in sandy 
soil, which is just kept moistened either by natural or artifi- 
cial means. As a pot plant it is easily manageable. 

The blunt-leaved variety alluded to above, is believed to 
be the A. obtusum, and the narrowed form the A. acutum, 
of continental authors. 

ASPLENIUM FONTANUM, R, Brown. The Smooth Eock 
Spleenwort. (Plate XIII. fig. 2.) 

This is a small tufted-growing species, seldom seen more 
than three or four inches high under ordinary circumstances ; 
in a hot-house, where its parts become more lengthened, it 
sometimes reaches six or eight inches high, but we never 
saw this stature exceeded in cultivated plants, and it is but 
rarely attained. The small fronds are evergreen, and mostly 
grow nearly upright ; they are of a narrow, lanceolate form, 
rather rigid in texture, of a deep green above, paler beneath, 
and supported on a very short stipes, which has a few 
narrow, pointed scales at the base. In division they are 
bipinnate, the pinnse being oblong-ovate, and the pinnules 
obovate, tapering to the base, the superior basal pinnule of 



70 HISTORY OF BRITISH TERNS. 

each pinna having the margin divided by four or five deep, 
sharp teeth, the rest of the pinnules and lobes having from 
one to three similar teeth. The main rachis of the frond, 
as well as the partial rachis of each pinna, have a narrow 
winged margin, that is to say, a very narrow leafy expansion 
along their sides, throughout their length ; and this is per- 
haps the most obvious technical point, except size, by which 
to distinguish the present plant from A. lanceolatum. In 
structural details they very much resemble each other, so 
that in description they appear very similar, although to the 
eye they are at all times distinct. 

The fronds being rigid and opake, the venation is less 
evident than is usual in Ferns. It consists, in each pinnule, 
of a central or principal vein, which throws off a venule 
towards each lobe or serrature, and in the larger pinnules 
some of these venules become divided, so that a veinlet is 
directed towards each of the serratures into which the mar- 
gin is divided. On two or more of these veins a sorus is 
produced, which in form is short compared with those pro- 
duced by most of the genus ; the actual form is oblong, 
rather flat on the side by which they are attached; and they 
are covered by an indusium of similar form, which is waved 
and indented on the free margin. Sometimes the sori keep 



ASPLENIUM. 71 

quite distinct, but it is not uncommon for them to become 
confluent so as to cover nearly all the under-surface of the 
whole of the little pinnules. 

There are some who doubt this species being really a 
native of Britain, on the ground that it is not now to be 
found in the places where it is said to have been originally 
met with. We have been favoured by Mr. Shepherd, of 
Liverpool, for many years a cultivator of Ferns, with a frond 
gathered at Matlock, in Derbyshire. It has, moreover, been 
met with on a very old wall at Tooting, and also on rocks 
near Stonehaven ; and considering that it is a very small 
plant, and that the places where it would be most likely 
to occur are generally the most inaccessible, and, therefore, 
the least likely to be searched considering, moreover, 
the many probable localities which exist, and have not 
been carefully explored by any keen botanical eye, we 
think the probability is that it is really indigenous, though 
from these causes it is overlooked. While so many pro- 
babilities exist in favour of its being native, we are not 
justified in rejecting the statements which the older bota- 
nists have left us. 

This species is too rare to be often trusted on rock-work, 
unless where every provision, such as shade, shelter, and 



72 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

moisture, has been made for it ; but planted in a well- drained 
pot, and kept in a close, cold frame, or in a damp hot-house, 
it grows freely, becoming much more vigorous under the in- 
fluence of heat. 

The other names which have been given to this Fern, 
besides that here adopted, are these : Aspidium fontanum, 
Athyrium fontannm, Polypodium fontanum, and Aspidium 
Halleri. 

ASPLENIUM GERMANICUM, Weiss. The Alternate Spleen- 
wort. (Plate XIII. fig. 3.) 

One of the rarest of our native Ferns, and perfectly dis- 
tinct from A. Ruta-mtraria, of which some botanists have 
thought it to be a variety. It grows in little tufts, the 
fronds being from three to six inches high, sub-evergreen, 
narrow-linear in form, pinnate, divided into distant, alternate, 
wedge-shaped pinnse, one or two of the lowest having gene- 
rally a pair of very deeply divided lobes, the upper ones 
more and more slightly lobed, all having their upper ends 
toothed or notched. 

The whole fronds are quite small, arid the parts narrow, 
which, added to their opacity, renders the venation indis- 
tinct ; there is no midvein, but each pinna or lobe has a 
vein entering from the base, which becomes two or three 



ASPLENIUM. 73 

times branched as it reaches the broader parts upwards, six 
or eight veins generally lying close together, in a narrow fan- 
shaped manner, in each of the larger pinnae, the smaller 
ones having a proportionately less number. Two or three 
linear sori are produced on a pinna, and these are covered 
by membranous indusia, the free margin of which is entire, 
or slightly sinuous, but not jagged ; the sori at length be- 
come confluent. 

Yery rarely met with in Scotland, but nowhere else in the 
United Kingdom. It is found, but very sparingly, in other 
parts of Europe. 

This kind is not only rare, but one of those which does 
not freely yield to artificial culture. It grows tolerably 
freely if potted in well-drained, sandy peat-soil, and kept 
under a bell-glass in a shaded frame or better in a hot- 
house ; but the plants are very liable to die in winter. The 
safeguard is, not to allow any water to lodge about their 
crowns, nor to keep the bell-glass too closely or too con- 
stantly over them. 

This species is often named A. alternifolium by British 
authors ; but the name we have adopted claims precedence. 
It has also been called Asplenmm Breynii, Amesium germa- 
nicum, and Scolopendrium alternifolium. 



HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

ASPLENIUM LANCEOLATUM, ffu&on. The Lanceolate 
Spleenwort. (Plate XII. fig. 1.) 

We have here an evergreen Eern of variable size, seldom 
in cultivation having the vigour which it exhibits near the 
coast in our south-western counties, and especially in the 
Channel Islands. As might be expected, it evidently re- 
quires a mild and sheltered climate, so that in a hot-house, 
where the temperature is not kept too high, it grows freely, 
which can seldom be said of plants kept in a cold frame in 
the climate of London, and never of plants fully exposed. 
Under the least favourable circumstances its fronds are 
from four to six inches long; but under the most favourable 
conditions they reach the length of a foot, or even a foot 
and a half. The fronds are of a lanceolate form, supported 
on a brownish-coloured stipes of about a third of their 
entire length, the stipes as well as the rachis having, scat- 
tered throughout their length, numerous small bristle-like 
scales. In the more vigorous wild plants the habit seems 
to be erect, but the cultivated plants mostly assume a 
spreading or even decumbent mode of growth. This species 
is very closely related to the common Asplenium Adiantum- 
nigrum, which, in some of its states, very much resembles 
it; but the outline of the fronds will, we believe, always 



Rate HI. 




a 



ASPLENIUM. 75 

separate them, those of lanceolatum being lance-shaped, or 
tapering from near the middle towards the base, while those 
of Adiantum-mgrum are always triangular, or broadest at 
the base. The pinnse spread at nearly right angles with the 
rachis, often, but not always, opposite, and have an ovate- 
lanceolate form ; they are again pinnate, so that the frond 
is bipinnate. The pinnules are of irregular form, often 
obovate, or nearly so, sometimes unequally quadrate, but 
always indented on the margin with deep, sharp teeth, the 
larger pinnules being first lobed, and the lobes toothed, 
the smaller ones simply toothed. 

The venation is tolerably distinct; the pinnules each 
having a tortuous midvein, which produces forked venules, 
one of the veinlets of which extends towards each serrature. 
The sori have no very definite order ; they are at first ob- 
long, and covered by an indusium of the same form, having 
a lacerated free margin ; but as they become old the sides 
become bulged out so as to give them a roundish form, and 
the indusium becomes obliterated. 

This is rather a local species, being found only in the 
southern and western parts of England, and in Wales, almost 
always near the coast. It is found very luxuriant in the 
Channel Islands, 



76 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 



ASPLENIUM MARINUM, TAwfUKU*. The Sea Spleenwort. 
(Plate XIY. fig. 1.) 

This very handsome evergreen Pern, like the Lanceolate 
Spleenwort, is a maritime species, occurring profusely on our 
south-western rocky coasts and in the Channel Isles, and 
extending to Prance and Spain, to Madeira and the Canaries. 
In cultivation it thrives most luxuriantly in the atmosphere 
of a damp hot-house, where it forms, in a comparatively 
short time, a dense mass of the deepest green, and often 
reaching a foot and a half in height. In a cold frame, if 
kept closed, well-established plants will continue in health, 
progressing slowly, and never acquiring half the size of those 
grown in heat. In the climate of London it does not pros- 
per, nor, as far as we know, survive, if planted on exposed 
rock-work. It is a tufted-growing species, with linear or 
linear-lanceolate fronds, usually six or eight inches long, of 
the deepest glossy green, with a smooth, rather short, dark 
brown stipes. The fronds are simply pinnate, with stalked 
pinnse, connected at their base by a narrow wing which 
extends along the rachis ; their form is either obtusely 
ovate or oblong, unequal at the base, the anterior base being 
much developed, while the posterior is, as it were, cut away, 
the margin being either serrated or crenated. 



ASPLENIUM. 77 

They are of leathery texture, but the veins are neverthe- 
less tolerably evident, each pinna having a midvein, from 
which venules are given off alternately on either side, there 
again producing a series of veinlets. The sori are produced 
on the anterior side of each venule, lying obliquely, and 
forming two rows on each side the centre ; they are oblong 
or linear, covered by a persistent indusium, which opens 
along the anterior margin as the spore-cases grow towards 
maturity. 

The chief variation to which this Tern appears subject is 
that of the elongation of its parts. Sometimes the pinnae are 
much elongated, tapering to a narrow point; sometimes, 
besides being narrowed, they are auricled at the base, and 
deeply lobed. 

This species, with the Lanceolate Spleenwort and the 
Maiden-hair, are exceedingly well adapted for Wardian cases 
in warm sitting-rooms. All of them enjoy the warmth ; and 
being all evergreens of moderate size, and very elegant in 
structure, they supply just what is wanted in such situations. 
They should be planted on elevated rock-work, in sandy 
peat-soil, lying in the interstices between the fragments of 
stone ; and when once established will grow freely, provided 
they are not much exposed to the sun, which they do not 
like. 



78 HISTOHY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

ASPLENIUM RUTA-MURARIA, Linntfus. The Eue-leaved 
Spleen wort, or Wall Hue. 

Very diminutive, and not very attractive, occurring abun- 
dantly on old walls, often in such situations little more than 
an inch high. It grows in tufts, insinuating its wiry roots, 
as is the case with all the mural species, into the crevices 
and joints of the masonry, and is not easily removed from 
such places in a condition suitable for planting. The fronds 
are numerous, of a glaucous-green, varying between one 
and six inches long, with a stipes about half the entire 
length, the leafy part usually triangular in outline, and bi- 
pinnate. The pinnce are alternate, with rhomboidal, or 
roundish- ovate, or obovate pinnules, sometimes wedge-shaped 
with the apex abruptly cut off. The more luxuriant fronds 
are once more divided, so as to become almost tripinnate, 
the pinnules being deeply pinnatifid, and the lobes of the 
form of the ordinary pinnules. Occasionally in immature 
specimens the fronds are only once pinnate, with pinnatifid 
pinnae. The upper margins of the pinnules are irregularly 
toothed. 

The veins are rather indistinct, and there is no inidvein, 
but a series of veins arise from the base, becoming branched 
in the progress towards the apex, the number of ultimate 



Plate HIT. 




ASPLENIUM. 79 

branches usually corresponding with that of the marginal 
teeth. Several sori are produced near the centre of the 
pinna, covered by indusia which open inwardly with a 
jagged or irregularly sinuated margin. 

A very common species, confined to rocks and walls, and 
occurring throughout Europe and in many parts of North 
America. 

Synonymous with the name we employ, are the following : 
Amesium Ruta-mwraria, Scolopendrium Ruta-muraria. 

ASPLENIUM SEPTENTKIONALE, HM. The Forked Spleen- 
wort. (Plate XII. fig. 3.) 

A rare and diminutive Fern. The habit is tufted, com- 
paratively large masses being sometimes formed ; the fronds 
themselves are very small, from two four inches long, slender, 
dull green, with a long stipes, which is dark purple at the 
base. The leafy part if, indeed, it can here be called leafy 
is of a narrow elongate lance-shaped form, split near the 
end into two or sometimes three alternate divisions, or in 
the smaller fronds merely toothed ; each of these fronds, or 
divisions of the frond, has its margin cut into two or more 
sharp-pointed teeth, the points of the larger teeth being 
very frequently bifid. 

The veins are reduced to a minimum ; one vein enters 



80 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

each lobe, or if the frond is not lobed the stipes is continued 
upwards in the form of a vein ; this becomes forked so as 
to send up one vein to each of the teeth into which the 
part is divided ; and three or four linear sori are produced 
in a very crowded manner within this small space, so that 
when from age the sori burst open the indusiurn, the spore- 
cases form a confluent mass over the whole under- surface. 

The confluent mass of spore-cases arising from the 
crowded position of the sori, has led some authors to consider 
this plant an Acrostichum, the mark of which is to have the 
whole under-surface thus covered. Some of the sori being 
face to face, and almost in juxtaposition, has again led other 
botanists to think it a Scolopendrium, the mark of which is 
to have the sori confluent in pairs face to face ; but if the 
plant is examined while young, it will be seen that these 
resemblances are unreal, and that it is really an Asplenium. 
It is thus that it has been called by the names of Aero- 
sticjium septentrionale and Scolopendrium septentrionale ; to 
which Amesium septentrionale has to be added as another 
synonyme. 

In cultivation it requires sandy peat-soil, and the shelter 
of a close frame, or bell-glass. 

ASPLENIUM TRICHOMANES, Linnaw. The Common 
Spleen-wort. (Plate XIII. fig. 5.) 



ASPLENIUM. 81 

This is rather a diminutive plant, but, when in a vigorous 
state, has a very interesting appearance, from the contrast 
between its black stipes and rachis, and the bright green 
pinnae, and from the regularity with which the latter are 
disposed. It grows in tufts, naturally introducing itself 
into the joints of old masonry and among the crevices of 
rocks, and producing numerous small slender fronds, of a 
linear form, in its most vigorous state nearly a foot long, 
but generally from three to six inches. They are evergreen, 
simply pinnate, on a rather short stipes, which is of a 
purplish-black, the rachis also being of the same dark 
colour. The pinnae are dull green, small and numerous, 
equal-sized, of a roundish-oblong figure, attached to the 
rachis by a stalk-like projection of their posterior base ; 
the margin is rather entire or crenated. The pinnae are 
jointed to the rachis, and when old are readily displaced, so 
that eventually the black rachis is left denuded among the 
tuft of fronds. 

A distinct midvein passes through each pinna, giving off 
on each side a series of venules bearing veinlets, the an- 
terior of these producing the linear sorus just within the 
margin of the pinnae. The sori, which in the young state 
are covered by a thin indusium having a somewhat crenu- 

G 



8 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

lated free margin, very frequently in a later stage become 
confluent/ and cover the whole of the under surface. 

A very rare and very curious variety of this species has 
the pinnae deeply pinnatifid, with linear notched segments ; 
this is sometimes distinguished by the name of incisum. 

The ordinary form of the species occurs rather plentifully 
growing on rocks, old walls, and ruins, and less frequently 
on hedge-row banks. It is pretty generally distributed 
throughout the United Kingdom and Ireland ; and also 
occurs throughout Europe, and in each of the other divisions 
of the globe. 

This is one of the species of Ferns which has enjoyed a 
medicinal reputation, a tea and a syrup prepared from it 
being a country remedy for coughs and colds. 

When once established this plant grows readily either in 
pots or on rock- work ; but its roots being wiry, and gene- 
rally inserted into the crevices of the walls or rocks on 
which it grows, it is sometimes found to be difficult to 
transplant. In general the smaller and younger plants may 
be removed with greater success than the larger and older 
ones. The newly transplanted roots should be kept rather 
close, if possible, for a short time ; but after they are esta- 
blished, shade is not so essential to this species as to most 



ASPLENIUM. 83 

other Perns,, although it grows most vigorously under the 
influence of shade and shelter. In a Wardian case, for 
which its size is suitable, it should have the upper and drier 
parts of the rock -work. 

Asplenium melanocaulon is another name which has been 
given to the common Spleen wort. 

ASPLENIUM VIEIDE, Hudson. The Green Spleenwort. \ 
(Plate XIII. fig. 4.) 

This Fern has such a general resemblance to A. Tric/w- 
manes as to have been mistaken for it by casual observers. 
It is, however, quite distinct, and is most readily known 
from A. TricJiomanes by the colour of its rachis, which, is 
green in the upper part, while in the latter it is black 
throughout. It is an evergreen tufted species, producing 
narrow, linear, simply pinnate, bright pale green fronds, 
ranging from two to eight or ten inches in length, supported 
by a short stipes, which is dark -coloured at the very base, 
but otherwise green, the rachis being entirely green. The 
pinnse are small, generally roundish- ovate, rather tapered 
towards the base, and attached to the rachis by the narrowed 
stalk-like part, the margin being deeply crenated. 

The venation is distinct : the midvein sends off alternately 
a series of venules, which are either simple or forked, bearing 



84 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

the sori on their anterior side. The sori are oblong, covered 
at first by membranous indusia, which are soon pushed aside ; 
the free margin is jagged or crenate. 

A native of moist,, rocky, mountainous districts in Eng- 
land, Scotland, and Wales ; occurring, also, though less 
frequently, in Ireland, and throughout Europe. 

It is not difficult to cultivate in pots in a close, damp, 
cold frame ; or on moist, shady rock-work, if covered over 
by a bell-glass. If exposed, it is apt to suffer from occasional 
excessive wet, which often does not properly drain away ; and 
also from the dry hot air of our summers. The object of 
covering it with a glass is to avoid both these casualties, and 
provided it is not kept too close it will then thrive well. 
The proper bell-glasses for these half-hardy Perns are those 
with a small opening in the crown, which may be closed or 
not at pleasure, but, in general, are best left open. In pots 
it should have a gritty, porous soil. 



Genus VII. ATHYEIUM, Both. 

IN the Athyrium we have perhaps the most variable of all 
our native Perns; though the varieties it presents, and 



ATHYRIUM. 85 

which have been from time to time looked upon as affording 
so many distinct kinds, are now almost universally considered 
as different phases of one species. Viewed in this light, the 
species is certainly not a very constant one, which fact seems 
all the more inappropriate, inasmuch as the species itself is 
that to which the name of Lady Pern is applied. All the 
various forms are plants with delicate and beautiful fronds 
of annual duration, varying in size from tufts of a few inches 
high, to plumy masses of the height of three or four feet. 
The texture is thin, and almost transparent, on which account 
the nature of the venation and of the connection of the parts 
of fructification may be here very well seen and studied. 
They serve to connect the Aspidium-like and the Asplenium- 
like groups, differing, however, obviously from the former in 
having the sori elongate instead of round ; although from the 
circumstance that in age the sori here become somewhat 
curved or reniform, thus approaching the rounded form, this 
very species, the Lady Pern, has, by many writers of dis- 
crimination, been placed in the old genus Aspidmm. If, 
however, the fructification is examined while young, imme- 
diately before or after the indusium has burst, its true cha- 
racter will readily be seen. We have here an illustration of 
the inconvenience which arises from the preservation only of 



86 HISTORY OP BRITISH FERNS. 

herbarium specimens in wlu'ch the fructification is quite 
mature ; for this, without doubt, was the cause of the Lady 
Fern having been referred to the family of Aspidium } with 
which it has no real affinity. The affinity of the Lady Fern 
is properly with the Aspleniums, and there is less reason to 
dispute the conclusions of those who actually place it as a 
species of Asplenium ; although, as there is a difference be- 
tween them, and the genus Asplenium is rather a crowded 
one, it is a convenience to have them separated. The mark 
by which the Aspleniums and their allies are known, in 
addition to the elongated form of the sorus, is its position 
on the side, not the back, of the veins ; the receptacle being 
lateral, as it is said. From Asplenium itself, the Athynum 
is known by having its indusium fringed on the free margin 
with capillary segments, while in Asplenium proper the 
margin of the indusium is without this membranous fringe. 
There is, as already mentioned, only one indigenous species 
of AtJiyrium. The Asplenium fontanum is sometimes ad- 
mitted, but we think it does not properly belong to this 
genus. 

The name is derived from the Greek, and comes from 
atliyros, opened ; the allusion being to the position assumed 
by the indusium, which stands out from the surface of the 



Plate XL 




^I/VYA. l/V U\ ^ tC V/ .^VVA, 



ATHYRIUM. 87 

frond like an opened door, after the growth of the spore- 
cases has disrupted its anterior margin, and eventually is 
quite turned back. 

ATHYRIUM FILIX-FCEMINA, Roth. The Lady Pern. 
(Plate XI.) v 

The Lady Pern, on account of the exquisite grace of its 
habit of growth, the elegance of its form, and the delicacy 
of its hue, claims precedence over every other British species ; 
and this is more or less true of every one of its variable con- 
ditions. The habit of the plant is tufted, the caudex of the 
larger varieties often with age acquiring some length, and 
elevating the circlet of fronds on a low, rude pedestal ; this 
stem, however, never acquires more than a few inches in 
length. In winter, the summit of this stem, whether a tuft 
seated close to the ground, or elevated a few inches above 
the surface, is occupied by a mass of incipient fronds, each 
rolled up separately, and nestling in a bed of chaffy scales. 
About May these fronds become developed, and from the 
strong old roots a score or upwards are usually produced ; 
they reach maturity early in the summer, during which time 
a few additional fronds are generally developed from the 
centre ; and the whole of them are destroyed by the autumn 
frosts under ordinary circumstances. The form of the fronds 



55 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

is lanceolate, more or less broad ; and they are supported 
On stipes which are scaly at the base, and usually about a 
third of the entire length of the fronds. The division of the 
fronds is what is called bipinnate; the pinnae are always 
lanceolate, more or less drawn out at the point, and they are 
always again pinnate, though sometimes with the bases of 
the pinnules connected by a narrow leafy wing, but not so 
much so as to render them merely pinnatifid. The pinnules, 
however, are more or less lobed or pinnatifid, the lobes being 
sharply toothed in a varying manner. 

Prom the delicate herbaceous texture of the fronds the 
venation is very distinct; and is seen to consist, in each 
pinnule, of a wavy midvein, from which proceed alternate 
venules, which again produce alternate veinlets, and on the 
anterior side of this series of veins, at some distance from 
the margin, is borne an oblong sorus ; in the larger and 
more divided pinnules the veining is more compound, and 
more than one sorus is produced from each primary venule, 
which thus becomes a midvein, with branches on a smaller 
scale. The sori are themselves oblong, a little curved, and 
they are covered by indusia of the same form. Both the 
sorus and the indusium, on the development of the spore- 
cases, become bulged in the centre and contracted at the 



ATHYRIUM. 89 

ends, appearing more curved than before, and the sorns 
thus becomes finally roundish in outline, and the indusinm 
apparently almost circular with a lateral notch; in this 
state it somewhat resembles a Lastrea. On one side the in- 
dusium is fixed longitudinally to the side of the vein which 
forms the receptacle ; its other margin, the anterior one, or 
that towards the midvein of the pinnule, becomes free, and 
is then seen to be fringed, or split into a number of hair -like 
segments. This description applies to the commoner forms 
of the Lady Pern, which, however, are very variable in size, 
according to the situation and circumstances which influence 
their development, sometimes scarcely exceeding a foot in 
height, and at other times reaching the height of four or 
five feet, the latter being the result of growth in a damp, 
shady situation, the former the consequence of a more exposed 
and drier locality. 

Of the varieties we shall notice only the most striking, 
and of these convexum is botanically the most distinct, and 
probably should be regarded as a distinct species. It differs 
from the commoner Lady Perns in its more lady-like pro- 
portions, both its fronds, its pinnse, and its pinnules being 
smaller and more slender than in them. The fronds seldom 
exceed two feet in height, and are often less ; they are more 



90 HISTORY OP BRITISH FEIINS. 

erect, and their form is narrow-lanceolate ; the pinnae are 
taper-pointed ; the pinnules set quite clear of each other, 
very narrow, that is, linear, with sharp points, the margins 
bluntly toothed, but rolled under so that very little of the 
toothing is seen; the sori are very often confluent. It oc- 
curs sparingly in boggy places. 

The variety latifolmm of Mr. JBabington, which appears 
to be the Mhyrium latifolmm of Presl, a German writer on 
Perns, is probably also a distinct species. This differs from the 
common forms in the elongate or oblong-lanceolate outline 
of its fronds, and in the broad, leafy, crowded development 
of its pinnules, which are somewhat irregularly lobed, as well 
as deeply toothed at the margin, with the curved sori lying 
near the sinus of the lobes. This is a strong- growing form. 
It has been recently found near, Keswick, in Cumberland. 

The variety nolle has ovate-lanceolate fronds, growing 
nearly erect, the lower pair of pinnse being short and de- 
flexed ; it has flat, toothed pinnules, connected at their base 
by a slender wing to the midrib, and produces its sori dis- 
tinct. This is a small form, often not more than about a 
foot in height. 

Besides these, there are three varieties of horticultural in- 
terest. One called multifidum, which has the habit of con- 



ATHYBIUM. 91 

vexum, but is more vigorous, has the tips of all the pinnae, 
as well as of the frond itself, multifid or tasselled, which 
gives it a very elegant appearance. Another, which we call 
crispum, is a dwarf tufted plant, no larger than a bunch of 
curled parsley, which it much resembles, its fronds being 
curiously crisped and tasselled. These two are, strictly 
speaking, monstrosities, but they have retained their cha- 
racteristics for many years in cultivation, and are very elegant. 

Another curious form we propose to call marinum : it 
was found by Dr. Dickie growing along with Cystopteris 
DicJcieana, in a cave near the sea at Aberdeen, and has now 
for five or six years been cultivated along with other hardy 
Perns, and retains its distinct appearance and characteristics. 
It has small fronds about a foot long, lanceolate, and re- 
markable for the manner in which they taper from their 
broad centre, equally towards the base and apex; these 
fronds, moreover, have a spreading or horizontal mode of 
growth ; their pinnules are oblong and bluntly toothed, and 
attached closely together, at right angles with the continu- 
ously winged rachis of the pinnae. The sori are very short, 
often curved in a horse-shoe form, and crowded on the small 
pinnules. 

The common Lady Pern is abundant in warm moist woods 



92 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

and hedge-rows throughout Great Britain, and especially so 
in Ireland ; it also occurs throughout Europe, and in Asia, 
Africa, and North America. The monstrous varieties are of 
Irish origin; though the parsley-like one has also been 
found in Scotland. 

Pew of our native Ferns are more easily cultivated than 
this. A rather boggy soil suits it best, and it loves shade 
and moisture ; indeed, these latter conditions being fulfilled, 
soil becomes a secondary consideration. The moisture, 
however, though abundant, should not be stagnant. The 
Lady Pern is occasionally seen planted in the mouth of a 
cave or recess by water among shady rock-work ; nothing is 
so lovely as a finely-grown plant of it so situated. 

" Supreme in her beauty, beside the full urn, 
In the shade of the rock, stands the tall Lady Fern." 

As a pot plant it requires plenty of room, both for its 
roots and fronds, and must be liberally watered. 

By the older botanists this plant was called Polypodium 
Filix-fcemina. It was then transferred to Aspidium, under 
the name of Aspidmm Filix-foemina ; and subsequently by 
other botanists it has been called Asplenium Filix-fcemina, 
which latter name is still given to it by those who do not 
adopt the genus Atliyrium. 



93 



Genus XIII. BLECHNUM, Linnam. 

IT is not quite agreed among botanists, whether the English 
plant should be considered a member of the genus or family 
called BlecJmum, or that which bears the name of Lomaria. 
We think it most nearly related to the former, although 
in the contraction of its fertile fronds it approaches very 
near the latter. Among the British species the plant under 
notice for there is only one native species of the genus 
is known by having its fructification extended longitudinally 
on the pinnse, so as to form a linear or continuous sorus on 
each side the midvein, and about midway between it and 
the margin. The only other British Pern which has its 
fructification in extended lines lying parallel with the mid- 
rib, is the Pteris, or Bracken, in which, however, the sorus 
is on the margin, and not within the margin and near the 
mid vein, as in Bleehnim. The BlecJmum may, however, 
be at once known from the Pteris, by the division of its 
fronds, which are merely pinnate, while those of Pteris are 
decompound. 

The name BlecJmum is an adaptation of the Greek blech- 
non, which signifies, a Fern. There is but one native 
species, . Spicant; and we take the opportunity to state 



94 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

here, why we prefer this specific name to that of boreale, 
which is now more commonly used. The name of Blechnum 
Spicant was applied to this plant by Both, Relhan, With- 
ering, Symons, and Hull, before that of B. loreale was 
given to it by Swartz ; it has, therefore, unquestionably the 
right of priority. Besides this, the specific name Spicant 
has been used to distinguish this plant by nearly all the 
older botanists, though they have held very conflicting views 
as to the genus to which it belonged, referring it, for ex- 
ample, among others, to Osmunda, to Onoclea, to Acrosti- 
chum, and to Asplenmm. Thus all the evidence is in favour 
of the name we adopt. 

BLECHNUM SPICANT, Both. The Hard Fern. (Plate 
XVI. fig. 2.) 

The common name of this species is very appropriate, 
from the rigid harshness of its texture. It is one of the few 
native kinds which produce two distinct-looking kinds of 
frond fertile and barren. The fertile ones have their 
pinnae much narrowed, or contracted, as it is called, while 
the fronds themselves are considerably taller than the bar- 
ren ones. These fronds grow in large tufts, and being 
very gracefully disposed, the plant becomes one of the most 
ornamental of our wild species during the summer season, 



BLECHNUM. 95 

when its fronds are in a fresh state. Both kinds of fronds 
are of a narrow lanceolate form ; the barren ones being only 
deeply pinnatifid, while the fertile ones are pinnate ; but the 
segments in both are long and narrow, like the teeth of a 
comb. The barren fronds, which are from one-half to two- 
thirds the height of the fertile ones, assume a spreading or 
horizontal position, and are attached to the caudex by a 
very short scaly stipes. The fertile ones, which are situated 
in the centre of the tufts, are erect, from one to two feet 
high, the stipes, which is sparingly furnished with long 
pointed scales, being nearly half the length, and of a dark 
brown colour. 

The veins are not very evident in the fertile fronds, on 
account of the contraction of the parts, but they resemble 
those of the barren ones, except in having a longitudinal 
venule on each side the midvein, forming the recep- 
tacle to which the spore-cases are attached. The midvein is 
prominent, and produces a series of venules on each side, 
these becoming forked, and extending almost to the 
margin, terminating in a club-shaped head. In the fertile 
fronds the veinlets are necessarily shorter, and connected, as 
already mentioned, by the longitudinal venules which bear 
the fructification. The spore-cases are thus arranged in 



96 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

two linear sori, one on each side the midvein ; these are dis- 
tinct while young, but soon become confluent, covering the 
whole under-surface of the pinnse. The indusia, by which 
they are at first covered,, burst along that side towards the 
midrib, and eventually become split across here and there, 
at points opposite some of the venules. 

The Hard Fern is a rather common plant, occurring in 
heathy and stony places, and preferring localities which are 
rather damp than otherwise. It is found in various parts 
of Europe. In cultivation, it is a very suitable plant for 
damp shady rock-work, and in such situations, planted 
in peaty soil, it grows freely, and without requiring any 
special attention. 

The principal of its synonyms are Lomaria Spicant, 
Blechnum boreale, Osmunda Spicani, Asplenium Spicant, 
Onoclea Spicant, Acrostickum Spicant, Struthiopteris Spicant, 
and Osmunda borealis. 



Genus XVIII. BOTEYCHIUM, Swartz. 

THIS is called Moonwort, and is a small and very distinct 
plant, easily known by two circumstances, first, it has two 



BOTRYCHIUM. 97 

fronds, or rather two branches of its frond, the one of which 
is leafy, the other seedy ; and secondly, the pinnae of the 
leafy branch are crescent- shaped, with the outer margin 
jagged. There is no other native plant which has these 
peculiar features, and hence the Moonwort is a plant very 
easily recognized when it is met with. It is rather local in 
its range, but not scarce in the localities where it is found, 
which are open heaths and pastures, rather dry than 
otherwise. The spore-cases are collected into branched 
clusters at the end of the fertile branch ; the little branches 
of the cluster are all turned one way, and the spore-cases 
themselves are numerous and globular, and somewhat re- 
semble in the aggregate a miniature erect bunch of grapes. 

There is a peculiarity in this Pern which also serves to 
distinguish it, and its near ally the Opkioglossum, or Ad- 
der's-tongue, from all other native species the venation 
is straight, not circinate; that is, the fronds, before they 
are developed, are not rolled up spirally, unrolling as they 
expand, but in the incipient state the parts are merely 
folded together by a flat surface. Only one species of 
Botrychium is indigenous. 

BOTRYCHIUM LUNARIA, Swartz. The Moonwort. (Plate 
XVIII. fig. 2.) 

H 



98 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

This is a very peculiar plant, exceedingly interesting to 
the student of Perns,, from the differences of structure and 
development it exhibits as compared with the majority of 
Ferns. It is an almost stemless plant, furnished with a few 
coarse brittle fibres, and a bud springing from the perma- 
nent point which represents the stem. Within this bud, 
before the season at which the fronds are developed, they 
may be found in an embryo condition, perfectly formed, the 
two branches of the frond placed face to face, the fertile 
being clasped by the barren one. This new frond springs 
up annually, and perishes before winter, and in the majority 
of cases is not very conspicuous. The size varies from 
three to eight or ten inches in height, the lower half con- 
sisting of a smooth, erect, cylindrical, hollow stipes, the 
base of which is invested by a brown membranous sheath, 
which had covered it while in the bud. 

Above, the frond is separated into two branches, one of 
which is spreading, pinnate, leafy, lance-shaped ; the pinnae 
crescent-shaped, or somewhat fan-shaped approaching to 
lunate, filled with a radiating series of two or three times 
forked veins, such as occur in Adiantum, one vein extending 
into each of the crenatures into which the margin is divided. 
The other branch is erect, fertile, compoundly branched, 



CETEEACH. 99 

that is, it is first divided into branches corresponding with 
the pinnae, and these again into another series of branches, 
on which, distinct, but clustered, the globose stalkless spore- 
cases are produced. The spore-cases are two-valved, and 
open transversely when ripe ; the valves are concave. 

Occasionally, though very rarely, two fertile branches are 
produced, and there is a variety in which the pinnae are 
pinnatifid. 

This species is widely distributed, but local, occurring in 
open heaths and pastures, where the soil is peaty, and not 
very wet. The same plant occurs in other parts of Europe, 
and also in North America. 

The Moonwort is not very easily cultivated. It may, 
however, be preserved in pots in a cold frame, if transplanted 
while dormant into rather unctuous peaty soil, and kept 
from either of the extremes of drought or saturation. The 
roots should not often be disturbed when once established. 

The Moonwort is the Osmimda Lunaria of Linnaeus. 



Genus IX. CETERACH, Willdenow. 

THE genus Ceterach furnishes only one British species ; and 
this is so different from all others as to be distinctly re- 



100 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

cognized at a glance. The mark by which it is known is 
this : the back of every frond is covered by densely- 
packed, brown, pointed, chaffy scales. Among these scales, 
and concealed by them, lie the elongate sori, which are 
anomalous, in regard to their relationship, in having no 
indusium. The affinity of Ceterach is without doubt with the 
Asplenium-like Perns, and this being the case they ought 
to have an indusium ; the Polypody-like and Acrostichum- 
like Perns only, among the dorsal groups, wanting this 
cover to the sori. No indusium, however, exists here, 
unless it be represented by a kind of membranous ridge, 
which exists on the receptacles just behind the sori, and is 
the part which has been called an indusium. The proba- 
bility is, that it does represent that organ, which is not 
largely developed in consequence of the presence of so 
dense a covering of scales, these not only serving the pur- 
pose of a cover to the sori, but perhaps, from their crowded 
position, preventing its proper formation. 

The name Ceterack is an alteration of the word Chetkerak, 
which was applied to this plant by Persian and Arabian 
medical writers. 

CETERACH OFFICINARUM, Willdenow. The Scaly Spleen- 
wort. (Plate I. fig. 1.) 



Plate 1 . 




CETEEACH. 101 

A downy, evergreen, distinct-looking, and very pretty 
Fern, growing in tufts. The fronds when fresh are thick 
and rather fleshy, and from this cause, as well as the 
densely- packed scaly covering of the under surface, they 
are perfectly opake when dry. Their size is variable, ac- 
cording to the circumstances of their growth : they are 
found from two to six inches in length, rarely exceeding the 
latter. They grow on a short scaly stipes, and are either 
pinnatifid, as is commonly the case, or more rarely pinnate, 
the difference being, that in the latter the fronds are 
divided rather more deeply than in the former. The upper 
surface is a deep opake green, prettily contrasting with the 
rust-coloured brown of the scales on the under surface, 
these being just seen projecting from the margin, and still 
more fully in the exposed under surface of the young par- 
tially-developed fronds. The pinnse or lobes are of an ovate 
form, and either entire or lobed on the margin. 

The opacity of the fronds renders the venation indistinct, 
and indeed it is only to be made out by examining young 
fronds, removing the covering of scales, and the outer skin 
of the frond itself. It is then seen, that from the lower 
corner the principal vein enters, taking a sinuous course 
towards the upper side of the apex; it branches alter- 



10 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

nately, the venules being again branched, and the veinlets 
anastomosing more or less near the margin. The sori are 
borne along the sides of the venules in a very irregular 
manner, the majority of them being directed towards the 
apex of the pinna ; at first the sori are quite concealed by 
the scales, but the spore-cases ultimately protrude between 
them, although, being very similar in colour, the latter are 
never very obvious. 

The Ceteracli is a mural species, occurring on the walls 
of old buildings and ruins, and in rocky places. It is 
pretty generally distributed in the United Kingdom, but is 
considered somewhat rare in Scotland. It occurs also 
throughout central and southern Europe, and in the north 
of Africa. 

Like other wall Ferns, this is often difficult to establish 
in cultivation when first transplanted ; but when once this 
is overcome its cultivation is not difficult. It is best grown 
in a cold frame, potted rather high, among loam mixed with 
a large proportion of brick -rubbish, and not over- watered. 
Though generally found in exposed and rather sunny situa- 
tions, the finest examples we have seen were found in a 
shaded, moist situation, under trees, where sunshine never 
visited them. 



CYSTOPTEEIS. 103 



Among other names, this plant has borne those of Asple- 
nium Ceterack, Scolopendrium Ceterach, Grammitis Ceterach, 
Notolepeum Ceterach, and Gymnogramma Ceterach. 



Genus VI. CYSTOPTERIS, Bernhardi. 

THE species of Cystopteris are all small, fragile Ferns, yet, 
notwithstanding, they are very beautiful and very interesting, 
and furnish some remarkable differences of form. They are 
much more delicate and herbaceous in their texture than the 
majority of our native species, and hence are well adapted 
for the purpose of minute investigation into the nature of 
their venation and fructification. Their texture alone almost 
suffices to tell a practised eye their family position, but the 
tyro needs a more precise characteristic, and this is found in 
the structure of the scale or indusium which covers the sori. 
The sori in these plants are round, as in Lastrea and Poly- 
stichum, all, equally with Cystopteris, once included under 
the old family name of Aspldmm ; but here, instead of being 
almost flat and circular, the indusium is inflated or bulged 
out like a hood, and is attached at the back (towards the 
base of the pinnule) of the sori by its broad base, covering 



104 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

the sori while in a young state, but becoming ultimately 
reflexed at the point, which is more or less jagged or fringed. 
Hence these plants are called Bladder Terns. There are 
three native species, of one of which numerous distinct 
forms or varieties occur. 

The technical name comes from two Greek words, kystos, 
and pteris, which respectively mean bladder, and fern ; so 
that in this case the English appellation is a literal trans- 
lation of the scientific name. 

CYSTOPTERIS ALPINA, Desvaux. The Alpine Bladder- 
Fern. (Plate X. fig. 2.) 

A diminutive but very elegant plant, quite a gem. It 
has a close tufted stem, producing from its crown numerous 
bright green fronds, usually four to six inches, but some- 
times as much as ten inches high. These grow up in May, 
and die away in autumn. Their form is lanceolate, the 
mode of division bipinnate, with the pinnules so deeply pin- 
natifid as to render them almost tripinnate. The stipes is 
short, smooth, and scaly at the base. The pinnse are nearly 
opposite, with a winged rachis, ovate, divided into bluntly 
ovate pinnules, these latter being deeply cleft, almost down 
to their mid vein, into short, blunt, linear lobes, which are 
either entire, or have two or three blunt teeth. 



CYSTOPTERIS. 105 

The midveiii of the pinnules is nearly straight, with a 
venule, simple or divided, branching off to each lobe, one 
branch extending to the point of each marginal tooth. The 
small roundish sori are rather numerous, but not confluent, 
borne near the margin, and covered by a concave mem- 
branous indusium. 

This species, which is cultivated like the other species of 
Cystopteris without difficulty, has been found (formerly in 
abundance, now, we believe, almost exterminated) on an old 
wall at Leyton, in Essex. Indeed, its claim to aboriginality 
is strongly suspected, a small, much-divided form of Cysto- 
pteris fragilis being supposed to have been mistaken for it. 
The Scotch and Welsh plants which have been called Cysto- 
pteris atpina are probably open to this objection, but there is 
reason to believe the Essex plant to have been genuine ; and 
I have fronds of the true plant, communicated by a Eern 
cultivator, Mr. Shepherd, of Liverpool, which, he informs 
me, were gathered in Derbyshire and Yorkshire. It occurs 
in the alpine parts of southern Europe. 

Cystopteris regia is another name for this elegant plant, 
which has also been called Cyatliea regia and Cyathea incisa, 
Cystea regia, Polypodium alpinum, Aspidium regium, and 
Polypodium trifidum. 



106 HISTORY OF BRITISH FEIINS. 

CYSTOPTERIS FRAGILIS, Bernhardi. The Brittle Bladder- 
Pern. (Plate X. fig. 1.) 

This is a tufted-growing plant, spreading, if undisturbed 
under congenial circumstances, into large patches of nume- 
rous crowns, each of which throws up a tuft of several 
fronds, growing from six inches to a foot, sometimes more, 
in height. The stipes, which is very brittle, dark-coloured, 
and shining, with a few small scales at the base, is usually 
rather more than a third of the length of the frond, and 
generally erect. The form of the frond is lanceolate ; it is 
bipinnate, the pinnse lanceolate, the pinnules ovate acute, 
cut more or less deeply on the margin, the lobes furnished 
with a few pointed teeth. In some of the plants, and 
usually owing to their vigour, the pinnules are so very 
deeply cut as to become pinnatifid, almost pinnate, the lobes 
themselves then resembling the smaller pinnules nearer the 
apex of the pinnse and frond. 

The venation is very readily seen, owing to the delicate 
texture of the frond. In the ordinary-sized pinnules there 
is a somewhat tortuous midvein, which gives off a lateral 
branch or venule to each of the lobes into which the margin 
is cut, these venules branching again into two, three, four, 
or more veinlets, according to the size of the lobes, and each 



FlateX. 







CYSTOPTERIS. 107 

branch generally bearing a sorus at about midway its length. 
The sori are thus generally numerous, and rather irregularly 
disposed; and it often occurs that they are so numerous as, 
when fully grown, to become confluent into a mass of fructi- 
fication covering the whole under surface of the frond. The 
number of sori produced, and consequently the sparse or 
crowded disposition of the fructification, is a matter alto- 
gether dependent upon the circumstances of growth, and 
hence exceedingly liable to vary even in the same plant, and 
within the same year, as heat or cold, drought or moisture, 
may preponderate. The sori, which are nearly circular, are 
covered while young by a concave or hood-shaped indusium, 
which is attached by its broad base on one side beneath the 
sori, and has its apex ultimately free; this part usually be- 
comes torn or split into narrow segments, and the whole soon 
becomes pushed back or cast off by the growing spore- cases. 
There are many forms or varieties of this species. Two 
of them, called cynapifotia and antliriscifolia, do not seem 
to need any distinct description. Another, called angustata, 
is rather larger, generally, than the typical form, but differs 
more by having the points of its pinnae and the apex of the 
frond itself drawn out considerably into very narrow r points 
than in any other circumstance readily pointed out. 



108 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

Another distinct variety, called dentata, is generally 
smaller, and almost always blunter in the form of its parts ; 
this grows from six to eight inches high, and has ovate-lan- 
ceolate pinnae, with ovate, obtuse, pointless pinnules, which 
are again divided on the margin into a series of short blunt 
notches or teeth ; the venation is more simple, and the fructi- 
fication is more marginal, than in any of the preceding forms. 

The most distinct of all the varieties, however, is one 
which we have called Dickieana, after Dr. Dickie, its dis- 
coverer ; it has a more compact frond than any of the pre- 
ceding, grows from four to six inches in height, in outline 
almost ovate, terminating in a point, the pinnse ovate-lanceo- 
late, overlapping each other, the pinnules decurrent, broad, 
obtuse, with a few shallow, marginal notches ; the texture is 
very delicate and herbaceous, and the fructification marginal. 
It is of a deep green, and has often a degree of translucency 
which makes it very interesting ; it is a constant variety 
under cultivation. 

The usual forms of this species occur abundantly in moist 
mountainous districts, and also on walls, but generally in 
moist rocky situations throughout the United Kingdom, 
Ireland excepted, where it is comparatively rare. The same 
species is very widely dispersed in various parts of the world. 



CYSTOPTERIS. 109 

The varieties are more rare, and we know of only one locality, 
a sea-cave, near Aberdeen, in which Dickieana has been 
found. Cystopteris fragilis may be said to have rather a 
preference to limestone. Under cultivation it is one of the 
most manageable of the smaller sorts, growing freely on 
rock -work or in pots. Its fronds are produced very early in 
spring, are often renewed during summer, and continue to 
grow up in succession until the frost cuts them off. Being 
so very delicate in texture, the first frosts which have access 
to them do this. 

The names of Cyathea fragilis, C. cynapifolia, C.anthris- 
cifolia, C. dentata ; Cystea fragilis, C. angustata, C. dentata ; 
Poly podium fragile, P. cynapifolium, P. antJiriscifolium, P. 
dentatum, P. rh&ticum ; Aspidium fragile, A. dentatum, and 
A, rhaticum have been given by various authors to the dif- 
ferent forms of this variable species. 

CYSTOPTERIS MONTANA, Link. The Mountain Bladder- 
Fern. (Plate XIV, fig. 2.) 

This is the rarest of our native Ferns, and hence is a 
plant of great interest. It is a small species, growing with 
a slender creeping scaly stem, by the division of which it is 
increased. The fronds, which grow up from this caudex, are 
from four to six or eight inches high, triangular in outline, 



110 HISTORY OF BEITISH FERNS. 

from the great development of the lowest pair of pinnae ; and 
they are remarkable for the comparative length of the 
slender stipes, which is about twice as long as the leafy 
portion. The fronds are tripinnate in the lower part, and 
bipinnate upwards, the pinnae spreading, and standing op- 
posite in pairs, the lowest pair considerably larger than the 
next above, and unequally developed, the inferior side being 
very much larger than the superior ; this disproportion is 
not maintained to the same extent in the upper portions of 
the frond. The lower pinnae, on the inferior side, are first 
divided into ovate or lanceolate pinnules, and these are 
again cut into a second series of pinnules, of an ovate or 
oblong form, these ultimate pinnules being coarsely and 
irregularly notched or toothed; on the upper side, the 
pinnules correspond with the secondary pinnules of the 
lower side. The inferior pinnules of the next pair of pinnae 
also correspond in size, outline, and subdivision with the 
secondary pinnules of the lower pimi83; and above this 
the parts become gradually smaller and less divided up to 
the apex of the frond. 

The whole texture of the fronds is delicate and herba- 
ceous, as in the more common species, and hence the veins 
show very distinctly. In the ultimate pinnules the central 



Ill 

vein is somewhat flexuous, and gives off alternate lateral 
veins, one of which is directed toward the sinus or margi- 
nal indentation between two serratures. The sori have the 
usual roundish form common in this genus, and, being 
numerous, they become very conspicuous when fall-grown ; 
but though crowded they do not appear often to become 
confluent. These sori are covered, in the young state, by 
a blunt, concave, jagged-edged indusium. 

This rare species occurs wild in the United Kingdom only, 
as far as is known, among the Breadalbane mountains of 
Scotland, on one of which, Ben Lawers, it was originally 
found by Mr. Wilson, in company with Sir W. J. Hooker 
and Professor Graham ; this was in August 1836. Subse- 
quently, in 1841, Messrs. Gourlie and Adamson again met 
with it, on the "mountains between Glen Dochart and 
Glen Lochey." Mr. Gourlie again, we believe, as well as 
Dr. Arnott and Mr. Borrer, met with it in 1850. In the 
European Alps this Fern is met with, most abundantly 
northwards ; and it also occurs on the Eocky Mountains of 
the New World, occurring for the most part in its wild 
haunts, on rough stony ground in sub-alpine regions, but 
sometimes also in woods. 

The synonyms of this species are Polypodium montanum, 
Aspidium montanum, and CyatJiea montana. 






112 HISTORY OP BRITISH FERNS. 

Genus XY. HYMENOPHYLLUM, Smith. 

THE British Hymenophyllwm*, or Filmy Ferns, are small 
moss-like plants, with pellucid fronds, distinguished, along 
with Trichomanes, by having the fructifications at the edge, 
not on the back of the fronds ; and known from that 
genus by having the involucres which surround the clusters 
of spore-cases, two-valved instead of urn-shaped or entire. 
So far as our native species go, these distinctions serve, but 
they become puzzling in some exotic forms, which it is not 
easy to refer to their proper genus. They are the smallest 
of all our native Ferns, and, being somewhat rare, or at 
least local in their distribution, they have always been re- 
garded with much interest. Two native species are recog- 
nized, much like each other in general aspect, and distin- 
guished by one or two rather minute technicalities, which, 
however, are sufficiently obvious to those who have learned 
how to look for them. These peculiarities will be presently 
explained. 

The name Hymenopliyllum is compounded from the two 
Greek words hymen and phyllon, which mean a membrane, 
and a leaf; and is applied to those plants with much pro- 
priety, from the membranous texture of their fronds. 



HYMENOPHYLLTJM. 113 

HYMENOPHYLLUM TUNBRIDGENSE, Smith. The Tun- 
bridge Filmy Eern. (Plate- XY. fig. 2.) f^\ 

This is so named in consequence of its having been 
found in the neighbourhood of Tunbridge, though occurring 
also in many other parts of the United Kingdom. It grows 
in the form of matted tufts, on the surface of damp rocks, 
in the sheltered, humid localities which are congenial to 
it; the black, wire-like, creeping stems being entangled 
together, and interlaced with the mosses and allied plants 
which are often found in its company. The fronds are very 
short, from one to three or four inches long, membranous 
and semitransparent, almost erect, and of a dull brownish- 
green even when fresh, which gives them in some measure 
the appearance of being dead. These fronds are lanceolate, 
or somewhat ovate; they are pinnate, with the pinnae pin- 
natifid or bipinnatifid, and having their branches mostly 
produced on the upper side, though sometimes alternately 
on each side the pinna. 

The fronds are virtually, as is the case with the TricJw- 
manes, a branched series of rigid veins, winged throughout, 
except on the lower part of the short stipes, by a narrow, 
membranous, leafy margin. The clusters of spore-cases are 
here produced around the axis of a vein, which is continued 

i 



114 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

beyond the margin of the fronds, this vein or receptacle 
being enclosed within an urn-shaped involucre, consisting 
of two nearly orbicular compressed valves, which are spi- 
nosely serrate on the upper margin. 

It is a species widely distributed throughout the United 
Kingdom, and is found in many other parts of the world. 
It requires the same conditions for its successful cultiva- 
tion as does the Trichomanes, to which genus the reader is 
referred. ; ... 

It is the TricJwmanes turibndgense of Linnaeus. 

HYMENOPHYLLUM IJNILATERALE, Willdenow. Wilson's 
Filmy Fern. (Plate XV. fig. 3.) 

This plant is by English botanists most commonly called 
Hymenopkyllum Wilsoni, but there is no ground to doubt 
that it is identical with H. imilaterale, a name published 
by Willdenow long before that of Wilsoni ; we have, there- 
fore, adopted Willdenow' s name on the ground of priority. 
The species is a small moss-like plant, with numerous 
creeping filiform stems, generally growing in dense tufts, 
and producing a crowded mass of semi- drooping, brown- 
green, half -transparent fronds, averaging three or four 
inches in height. The fronds are of a linear-lanceolate 
form, and pinnate ; the rachis is usually somewhat curved, 



H YMENOPHYLLUM. 115 

and the pinnae are convex above, all turned one way, so 
that the fronds become more or less unilateral ; the outline 
of the pinnae is wedge-shaped, cut in a digitate-pinnatifid 
way, the lobes being linear-obtuse with a spinulose-serrate 
margin. 

The rigid veins, branching from the principal rachis, 
which is very slightly winged in the upper part, become 
themselves branched so as to produce one venule to each 
segment ; or, in other words, the veins are twice branched, 
and throughout their entire length after they leave the 
primary rachis they are furnished with a narrow membra- 
nous leafy wing or border, the primary rachis itself being 
almost quite without any such border. The clusters of spore- 
cases are collected around the free ends of veins, which 
usually occupy the place of the lowest anterior segment, and 
are included within an urceolate involucre, which is divided 
into two oblong convex inflected valves, which are quite 
entire at the flattened edges where they meet. 

This Filmy Fern seems equally diffused with its allied 
species, and they are often found in company. This, 
however, seems to be the more common of the two in some 
parts of Scotland, and in Ireland. It is widely distributed 
in other parts of the world. 



116 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

Genus IV. LASTKEA, Presl. 

ONE group of the Ferns were formerly called Aspidiums, 
or Shield-Ferns. This group, so far as English species are 
concerned, is now divided into three, bearing the names of 
Lastrea, Polystichum, and Cystopteris. The Lastreas are 
known among these by having the indusium, or seed-cover, 
round in outline with a lateral notch, thus becoming 
kidney-shaped; they are attached to the frond by the 
notched part. This group includes some of the largest and 
most common of our native species, and nearly all of them 
are remarkable for their elegance. Several of them retain 
their fronds through the winter in sheltered situations, but 
they are not strictly evergreen, and in exposed situations are 
always bare during winter. 

Of the Lastreas eight British species are usually recog- 
nized, but the number varies according to the value put 
upon certain differences in the plants, by different authors. 

The name Lastrea commemorates a zealous botanist and 
microscopical observer, M. Delastre of Chatelleraut. 

LASTREA CRISTATA, Presl. The Crested Fern. (Plate 
VI. fig. 2.) 

This is the simplest of the British forms of a group of 



LASTREA. 117 

species intimately related to each other, and which are some- 
times in the aggregate called Crested Perns; the latter 
name is, however, more usually applied only to L. cristata, 
of which we have used it as the equivalent. The group 
alluded to consists of L. cristata, uliginosa, spinulosa,dilatata 
in its many forms, and fcenisecii or recurva, plants whicli 
form a closely connected series, so close, indeed, that some 
very eminent botanists consider them as all belonging to 
two^species only, cristata and dilatata, the other forms being 
considered as mere varieties. This view of the subject is, we 
believe, almost exclusively confined to those whose lot it has 
been to study the Terns in a general way ; and the magnitude 
of the subject in such a form necessarily leads to generaliza- 
tions, and the acknowledgment only of such differences as are 
the most obvious. It is, in fact, often inconvenient for the 
general botanist to search after or take cognizance of very 
minute differences. Those, on the other hand, who study 
a smaller series, confined to certain geographical limits 
our own country, for example being unperplexed by the 
magnitude of their subject, as necessarily search for and 
find differences of another kind, less obvious at the first 
glance, but to be found if looked for ; and these, when 
proved to be constant and unvarying, are relied on as proper 



118 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

marks of distinction. As this book is intended for the use 
of those who are only likely at least whilst they require its 
aid to study the smaller group, we shall endeavour to show 
them how to understand the minuter differences which serve 
to separate this series of Crested Perns into several recog- 
nizable species ; and for this purpose shall first enumerate 
the leading features of distinction : 

Lastrea cristata grows with very erect, narrow, oblong 
fronds, whose deltoid pinnae are not quite divided down to 
the central rib, and the lobes into which they are separated 
are attached by the whole width of their base, and are oblong 
with a rounded apex. The stipes is sparingly furnished 
with broad, obtuse, membranous, whole-coloured scales. 

Lastrea uligmosa has two or three sorts of fronds ; one 
set, the earlier ones, having much resemblance to those of 
the preceding, the other sets producing fructification, being 
bipinnate at the bases of the pinnee, the fronds narrow- 
oblong, the lobes tapering to a point, and the scales of the 
stipes broad, blunt, and whole-coloured. This connects 
cristata with spinulosa. 

Lastrea spmulosa grows erect, has narrow, lance-shaped, 
bipinnate fronds, and whole-coloured blunt scales to the 
stipes. It is broader and more divided than the foregoing. 



LASTREA. 119 

Lastrea dilatata grows more spreading, has still broader 
or ovate lance-shaped fronds, and the stipes is clothed with 
lance-shaped scales, which are darker-coloured in the centre 
than at the margins. This is a very variable plant. 

Lastrea fcenisecii grows spreading, and has fronds smaller 
than the last ; they are triangular, bipinnate, and the seg- 
ments have their edge curved back so as to present a hollow 
surface to the eye; the scales of the stem are narrow, 
pointed, and jagged. 

Lastrea cristata itself, the Crested Fern, is not very ele- 
gant, but of considerable interest on account of its rarity. 
It forms a thick stem or root-stock, from which a limited 
number of narrow, very upright fronds arise early in May, 
and attain the average height of a couple of feet. The 
fronds are destroyed in autumn by the frosts. Their out- 
line is linear- oblong, that is, from a narrow width at the 
base of the leafy portion say two and a half or three inches 
in the case of fronds of the average height the margins 
run nearly parallel almost to the apex, where they narrow 
into a blunt point ; they are supported by a stipes which 
rather exceeds a third the length of the entire frond, is pro- 
portionally stout, and maintains this proportion upwards 
through the leafy portion of the frond ; on the lower part it 



120 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

has a few scales of a blunt, ovate form, a membranous tex- 
ture, and an uniform light brown colour. The pinnae are 
elongate-triangular in their outline, the broadest occurring 
at the base of the frond, the upper ones becoming gradually 
narrower, but all of the same general form, namely, widest 
at the base, gradually tapering to the apex. They are not, 
in the usual form of the species, divided quite down to their 
midrib, so as to become, in technical terms, pinnate, but 
each segment is attached by the entire width of its base, and 
connected by a narrow extension of its base with the seg- 
ment next behind it ; all the segments having their apices 
inclined rather towards the apex of the pinna. The lobes 
of the pinnae are themselves oblong, with a rounded apex, 
and a crenately toothed margin. 

The midvein of the lobes takes a tortuous course, and 
gives off lateral branches which divide into several secondary 
branches, one only of which, that nearest the apex of the 
lobe, bears a sorus. The fructification is confined to the 
upper portion of the frond, and often remarkably so ; less 
frequently it extends downwards to the pair of pinnae next 
above the basal ones. The spots of spore-cases are covered 
by a kidney-shaped scale or iudusium, having an entire 
margin, and become mature in August and September. 



LASTREA. 121 

This species occurs only on boggy heaths, and that in but 
few places in Britain, confined, we believe, to the counties 
of Nottinghamshire, Cheshire, Norfolk, and Suffolk. It is 
easily cultivated, either in a pot, or planted in a damp, some- 
what shady situation, and preferring a peaty soil. 

A Eern which has, within the last year or two, attracted 
some attention, and which Mr. Newman has called Lastrea 
uliginosa, we notice here as a variety of Lastrea cristata. 
It is exactly intermediate in its general appearance and cha- 
racters between that species and Lastrea spinulosa, and 
would perhaps, at first sight, be rather considered a state of 
the latter than of the former. In the mode in which its 
young fronds are rolled up, and in the arrangement of its 
veins, it however agrees best with cristata, and for this rea- 
son we prefer to consider it a variety of that species approach- 
ing spinulosa, with which latter it agrees most closely in the 
form of its pinnules. 

This Pern forms a stout crown or root-stock, having a 
tendency to multiply by lateral off-shoots. From the crown 
the fronds spring up in a circle, and grow nearly erect to 
the height of from two to three feet ; these bear the fructifi- 
cation. Other fronds, however, are produced, which are 
barren, and these do not grow so erect, nor put on the same 



122 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

form as the fertile ones. The barren fronds closely resemble 
those of cristata, while the fertile ones have much the ap- 
pearance of those of spinulosa, only they are narrower, and 
have narrow pinnae. The outline of these latter is narrow 
lance-shaped, drawn out at the apex, the pinnae having a nar- 
row tapering form, and the pinnules being oblong-pointed, 
with rather deep, serrated, marginal notches, the serratures 
terminating in a fine, somewhat hardened point. 

The midvein of the pinnules is somewhat tortuous, giving 
off branched lateral veins, the anterior of which bears a sorus, 
so that these latter are placed in two regular lines lengthwise 
on each pinna ; the sori are produced from the base to the 
apex of the frond. The barren fronds are broader, usually 
shorter, less erect, and their pinnules are of a broader, 
blunter form, and more closely placed, than those which are 
fertile. The stipes has ovate, pale-coloured scales, rather 
sparingly distributed, and most numerous at the lower part ; 
and the sori are covered by even-margined, kidney-shaped 
scales or indusia. 

This plant is found on boggy heaths, generally in company 
with cristata and spmulosa; it has, however, we are in- 
formed, been detected where cristata is unknown to exist. 
As far as we yet know, it is comparatively rare. 



LASTKEA. 123 

Sometimes after the growth of the first set of fertile fronds 
others will spring up which are also fertile, but have the 
appearance described above as peculiar to the barren ones. 
These fronds are undistinguishable from cultivated fronds 
of L. cristata, and furnish another reason for considering 
uliginosa as a state of that species. 

LASTREA DILATATA, Presl. The Broad Prickly-toothed, 
or Crested Pern. (Plate IX. fig. 2.) 

This is one of the most compound of our native species. 
It forms a large tufted stock or stem, and has broad arched 
fronds, which average about a couple of feet in height, 
though it is sometimes met with smaller, and often, when 
luxuriant, reaches a height of five feet. They are always 
more or less drooping or curved, and never grow erect as 
those of cristata, uliginosa, and spimdosa do. The general 
outline is ovate-lanceolate, though in this, one of the most 
variable of Perns, the form varies considerably, becoming 
sometimes narrow elongate lanceolate on the one hand, and 
short broad almost triangular on the other. It is not im- 
probable that among these various forms, the most distinct 
of which are sometimes regarded as varieties, two or three 
distinct species may be associated under the name of 
tata. We shall describe the more usual form. 



124 HISTORY OF BEITISH TEENS. 

The fronds are ovate, lance-shaped in outline, on a stipes 
of moderate length, which stipes is much thickened at the 
base, and densely clothed with entire, lance-shaped, pointed 
scales, of a very dark brown colour in the centre, but nearly 
transparent at the margins. They are bipinnate, with elon- 
gate-triangular or tapering pinnse, placed nearly opposite, 
and having more or less of obliquity from the larger deve- 
lopment of the inferior side. The pinnse are pinnate, and 
the pinnules near their base often so deeply divided as to be 
again almost pinnate; the rest are pinnatifid, or in the 
upper parts merely deeply toothed, but the margins, whether 
deeply or shallowly lobed, are set with teeth, which end in 
short spinous points. 

The veining is very similar to the more compound parts 
of the allied species spinulosa ; and the fructification is pro- 
duced in great abundance, the sori being ranged in two 
lines crosswise the pinnse on the larger lobes, or lengthwise 
on the less divided parts ; so that they have apparently a 
less regular distribution than occurs in spinulosa. The 
sori are covered by kidney-shaped scales or indusia, which 
are fringed around the margin with projecting glandular 
bodies. 

One of the varieties of this Fern has the fronds shorter, 



LASTREA. 125 

almost triangular in outline,, and remarkably convex ; it has, 
moreover, usually a dark green colour, often with a brownish 
tinge. It is found in more exposed places than the normal 
form, and. is not uncommon. 

Another is met with on the hills of the north of England ; 
and this, which it has been proposed to call Lastrea collina, 
is probably a distinct species. The form of its fronds is 
ovate, drawn out to a long narrow point, and the pinnules, 
which are obtusely ovate and have a broad attachment at 
the base, have the serratures on their margin less spinulose 
than in the common form. It was first noticed by the 
Eev. Mr. Pindar in Westmoreland. 

Mr. Newman proposes to separate a form of this plant, 
which differs in having its surface covered with glands, and 
in the scales of the stipes being broader, under the name of 
Lastrea glandulosa. Of its distinctness as a species we are, 
as yet, unprepared to decide. It appears, however, to con- 
nect L. spinulosa with dilatata, and is apparently the same 
as had been previously named I/, maculata by Dr. Deakin. 

This species, though found in drier places than its near 
ally spinulosa, is nevertheless partial to moisture, being 
found in damp, shady hedge-banks and woodlands. It is 
hardy, and easily cultivated. 



126 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

LASTREA PILIX-MAS, PresL The Male Pern. (Plate 
VIII.) 

The Male Pern is so called from its robust appearance in 
contrast with the more delicate, though similar, Lady Pern 
or FUiiV-fcemina. It is one of the species which grow up 
annually, the fronds being destroyed by the frosts of winter, 
unless the situation be very sheltered, when the old fronds 
often remain green until the young ones are produced in 
spring. It is a robust-growing plant, producing its fronds 
in a tuft around a central crown, and when vigorous and 
perfectly developed is a very striking object, though its 
ornamental qualities are often unheeded, we suppose, on ac- 
count of its commonness. Surely, however, it is not wise 
that objects imbued with that mystery vitality, and being 
intrinsically graceful and beautiful, should be despised be- 
cause a beneficent Creator has scattered them about our path 
with a lavish hand ; they ought the rather, one would think, 
to lead us to admire and adore ! 

The stipes of this Pern is densely scaly. The fronds 
average about a couple of feet in height, and are of a broad 
lance-shaped figure, and what is called bipinnate, though 
less decidedly so than occurs in some other species, for here 
it is those pinnules only which are nearest to the main rachis 



ZLa,te VEL. 




LASTREA. 127 

which are separate from each other. The pinnae are narrow 
and tapering, with a few of the lowest pinnules distinct, the 
rest united at the base ; these pinnules are of an obtusely 
oblong form, and serrated on the margin. The fructification 
of this plant is generally very copious, and is usually con- 
fined to the lower half of the pinnules, where it is crowded. 

This is one of the best species to study with the view of 
understanding the fructification of Ferns, for here the indu- 
sium, a very important organ, is seen to be remarkably pro- 
minent in fronds which have about reached their full deve- 
opment. In that state the indusium is as yet closed over 
the clusters of spore-cases, and will be seen to consist of a 
lead -coloured, tumid, kidney -shaped, conspicuous scale, 
which, at the proper time, becomes elevated on one side to 
allow the dispersion of the spores. This may readily be seen 
by closely watching the progress of the fronds after they 
have reached the stage just adverted to; or if they are 
gathered in that state for preservation in the herbarium they 
are almost certain to burst, more or less, in the process of 
drying, before they yield up their vitality. These covers are 
at first little white scales. 

The veins of this species are also readily seen, and each 
pinnule will be found to have a flexuous midvein, with 



128 HISTORY OP BRITISH FERNS. 

alternate venules, which are simple or forked, or sometimes 
three-branched in different parts of the pinnule, the three- 
branched ones, if present, occurring at the base, and the 
unbranched ones at the apex. The sori are borne on that 
branch which is towards the apex of the pinnule, and jointly 
they form a line at a little distance from and on each side 
of the mid vein. 

One variety of this Fern we have called Lastrea Filix-mas 
incisa in the ( Hand-book of British Ferns/ and it has been 
named Lastrea erosa, and I/. Filix-mas erosa, by others, in 
the belief of its being identical with a plant called Aspidium 
erosmn by an old author named Schkuhr which we think 
it is not. However this may be, it is a magnificent variety, 
much larger than the commoner form of the plant, attaining 
four or five feet in height, and possessing the same general 
features as that which has been already described, but 
larger in every part, and having the pinnules more elongated 
and tapering towards the point, more deeply cut along 
the margin, the branches of the venules more numerous, 
and the sori produced over a larger proportion of the sur- 
face of the pinnule, in fact, usually almost reaching to its 
apex. 

Another variety or starved form of this common plant 



LASTREA. 129 

has the pinnules changed into small rounded lobes, and the 
fructification reduced to a single row of spore-cases on each 
side the rib of the pinnae. This has been called Lastrea 
Filix-mas abbreviata. 

A third curious form of the Male Fern has the points of 
the frond and of the pinnae dilated into a fringe or tassel a 
very curious transformation, which, it is curious to remark, 
occurs only, as far as we know, among British species, in 
this the Male Fern and in the Lady Fern. 

The Male Fern is found abundantly all over the country 
in shady situations : the larger variety is met with here and 
there in similar places ; the other varieties are rare. It is 
one of the most easy to cultivate, and is very suitable for 
cool, shady rock-work, or for shady walks in woody scenery. 

Like its allies, this species has been called Pofypodium, or 
Aspidium, or Polystichum, besides Lastrea, but the specific 
name Filix-mas seems to have been always preserved to it. 

LASTEEA FCENISECII, Watson. The Triangular Prickly- 
toothed, or Eecurved Fern. 

This is a moderate- sized and very elegant plant, of droop- 
ing habit, and possessing a crisped appearance from the 
recurving of the margins of all the segments of fronds. It 
grows from one to two feet high, and from its tufted stem 

K 



130 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

produces a spreading circle of triangular fronds, the stipes 
of which, of about the same length as the leafy part, are 
thickly clothed with small, narrow, jagged, pale-coloured 
scales. The fronds are bipinnate, the lowest pair of pinnae 
always longer and larger than the rest, and the pinnules on 
the inferior side of the pinnae larger than those on the supe- 
rior side. The pinnules are of an oblong- ovate figure, and 
the lowest of them often divided again into a series of oblong 
lobes, for the most part decurrent, but sometimes slightly 
stalked ; the margin is cut into short spinous-pointed teeth. 

The veins of the pinnules are alternately branched from a 
sinuous midvein, and these venules give off two or three 
alternate veinlets, the lowest anterior one being the sorus. 
The exact ramification of the veins depends upon the degree 
in which the pinnules or lobes are divided. The fructifica- 
tion is distributed over the whole under surface, the sori 
being pretty evenly distributed in two lines along each pin- 
nule or lobe ; they are covered by small reniform indusia, 
which have their margin uneven, and fringed with small, 
round, stalkless glands. The whole frond is covered with 
similar glandular bodies. 

This Fern, which is most abundant in Ireland and the 
western parts of England, occurs in damp, sheltered woods, 



Tla.te Vll. 



\sugmi 




^ Imtitii 



. 



e>~t\,a_V v ( ^ 






LASTREA. 131 

and on shady banks and rocks. It is of an elegant drooping 
aspect, and is cultivated without difficulty. It is the more 
valuable as a pot plant from its moderate size and its ever- 
green character. 

This species is the Lastrea recurva of some writers, and 
the Nephrodium fcenisecii of others. 

LASTEEA OEEOPTEKIS, Presl. The Mountain Fern; 
sometimes called Heath Pern. (Plate VII.) 

This is a very elegant species, growing shuttle-cock fashion 
around the central crown of the stem, to the height of from 
two to three feet; and it is, moreover, so fragrant when 
drawn through the hand as to be recognized from its kindred 
by this circumstance alone. The fragrance is due to the 
presence of numerous minute glandular bodies on the lower 
surface, which, being bruised when the plant is handled, 
give out strongly that peculiar odour which many Ferns 
possess a sort of earthy, starchy smell, by no means dis- 
agreeable. The fronds are annual, springing up about May, 
and enduring through the summer : they are erect, lance- 
shaped in their outline, pinnately divided ; and there is this 
about them remarkable, that the stipes is unusually short, 
the leafy part being continued nearly down to the ground, 
and the lower pinnse are so short that the frond tapers 



132 HISTORY OF BRITISH TERNS. 

downwards as much or perhaps more than it does towards 
the point. The pinnse generally stand opposite, and are 
narrow, tapering, and pinnatifidly divided, bearing their 
fructification almost close to the margins of the segments, 
and generally very abundantly. 

In this species the divisions of the fronds are flat, not 
revolute, as in L. Thelypteris, which most resembles it. Each 
segment or lobe has a distinct and slightly sinuous midvein, 
which is alternately branched, the branches simple or divided, 
and bearing the spore-cases in clusters near their extremity. 

This plant loves shade, and is found most luxuriant in 
woods, occurring also on mountainous heaths. It may be 
considered a common plant in England, Wales, and Scot- 
land ; but in Ireland is much more rare. It is an effective 
plant for shady rock-work, and, when established, grows 
freely. 

Besides the name we have here adopted, this Fern has 
borne the following titles : AspiMum Oreopteris, Polypo- 
dmm Oreopteris, Poly podium montanum, Polystichum mon- 
tanum. 

LASTREA RIGIDA, Presl. The Rigid Fern. (Plate IX. 

% i.) 

This very elegant Fern is of moderate size, growing nearly 



Plate IX. 




1 1 b 



LAST11EA. 133 

upright, and from one to two feet in height. It is perhaps 
the most elegantly divided member of its family, the pin- 
nules being all doubly and very evenly toothed. The fronds 
issue from the crown of a comparatively thick stem, and are 
annual in their duration, greeting the approach of summer 
with the fresh green of youth, and shrinking dead and 
shrivelled from the icy touch of winter. There are two 
forms of frond the one narrowly triangular, the other lan- 
ceolate, and they are bipinnate, with narrow tapering pinnse, 
and oblong blunt pinnules, which are cut into broad rounded 
segments, again notched into a varying number of pointed 
but not spinulose teeth. The stipes is densely scaly. 

The veining is very similar to that of the large variety of 
Filix-maSj the pinnules having a flexuous midvein, with 
alternate venules again pinnately branched. The clusters 
of spore-cases are borne on the lowest anterior branch of each 
venule, that is, on the lowest veinlet on the side towards the 
apex of the pinnule, and they are covered by a kidney- 
shaped indusium, which does not soon fall away. Over the 
fronds are scattered numerous small sessile glands, which, 
when slightly bruised, give out a faint and not unpleasant 
odour. 

This Fern seems confined to the limestone districts of the 



134 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

north of England, growing at considerable elevations. It 
was first found at Ingleborough, in Yorkshire, and has been 
since met with on the limestone ranges of Westmoreland 
and Lancashire. In cultivation it is usually a free-growing 
plant, more lax than in the wild state, and one of the most 
elegant of the larger kinds. 

LASTREA SPINULOSA, PresL The Narrow Prickly - 
toothed, or Crested Pern. 

This is a rather erect-growing kind, with a stout stem or 
root-stock, which becomes branched, so that several crowns 
are generally found together forming one mass. The crowns 
may readily be separated, and in this way the species may 
be increased with much facility. The fronds grow from one 
o three feet high, and are bipinnate, the pinnse having an 
obliquely tapering form from the inferior pinnules being 
larger than the superior ones : this is most obvious at the 
base of the fronds, where the pinnae are broader than they 
are towards the apex. The pinnules are of an oblong form, 
somewhat narrowing upwards, the margins deeply incised, 
the lobes being serrated, and the teeth somewhat spinulose; 
this description, it should be remembered, applies to the 
lowest pinnules on the lowest pinnse ; those towards the 
apex of each pinna, as well as the basal ones of the pinnse 



LASTREA. 135 

nearer the apex of the frond, become gradually less and less 
compound, so that, although the margins are still furnished 
with spinulose teeth, they gradually lose the deep lobes 
which are found on the lowest pinnse. In all the more com- 
pound Ferns there is a similar difference of form according 
to the position of the pinnules, and in all such cases it is 
usual to describe only those which are the most complete, 
namely, such as are situated at the base of a few of the 
lowermost pinnse. The stipes of Lastrea spinulosa is rather 
sparingly furnished with semitransparent scales of a broad 
or bluntly ovate form, in which particular it agrees with cris- 
tata and uligintxa, but differs from dilatata an&famsecii. 

The venation of all these allied species is so very similar, 
.that it is unnecessary to repeat the description in detail. In 
the less divided pinnules there is a midrib, less tortuous 
than in cristata, which gives off branched venules, the lower 
anterior veinlets proceeding from which bear the sori, about 
midway between the rib and the margin ; the clusters of 
spore-cases thus forming an even double row on each pinnule. 
"When the pinnule is more divided, the same arrangement 
of the sori occurs on the lobes, the branches of the lateral 
veins or venules being then more numerous. The sori are 
covered by kidney-shaped indusia, having the margin entire. 



136 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

Marshy places and damp woods are the situations in which 
this Fern is met with ; and in such places it does not appear 
to be uncommon. It is very easily cultivated on damp 
banks or rock-work, and, when grown in pots, requires to be 
plentifully supplied with water. 

LASTREA THELYPTERIS, Presl. The Marsh Fern. (Plate 
VI. fig. 1.) 

This is called the Marsh Fern from its growing in marshes 
and boggy situations. It has a slender, extensively creeping 
stem, which is usually smooth and of a dark colour, pro- 
ducing matted fibrous roots. The annual fronds are pro- 
duced about May, and later, and perish in the autumn : they 
usually grow about a foot high, the fertile ones taller ; some- 
times, when the plant is very vigorous, they reach the height 
of three feet* Their texture is delicate, their colour pale 
green, their outline lanceolate, their mode of division pin- 
nate, the pinna3 mostly opposite, a short distance apart, and 
pinnatifidly divided into numerous crowded, entire, rounded 
lobes ; the lobes in the fertile fronds appear narrower and 
more pointed that those of the barren, on account of their 
margin being revolutely bent under. 

The venation of the lobes of this Fern consists of a 
distinct, somewhat tortuous midvein, from which alternate 



Plate VI. 




OPHIOGLOSSUM. 137 

venules branch out, these being usually forked, and both 
branches bearing a sorus half-way between the margin and 
the midvein. The sori, which are thus pretty numerous, 
often become confluent, and are partially concealed by the 
bent-back margin. The indusium, or cover of the spore- 
cases, is in this species small and thin, and is soon thrown 
off, and lost. 

The Marsh Pern has a wide geographical range, and in 
England and Wales occurs in numerous localities ; in Scot- 
land and Ireland it is rather uncommon. 

Not a very attractive species for cultivation. It has 
been severally referred, under the individual name of TJiely- 
pteris, to the families of Aspidiwm, Poly podium, Acrostichum, 
and Polystic/mm, by various botanical writers. 



Genus XVII. OPHIOGLOSSUM, Linnaus. 

THIS is very nearly related to the Moouwort, though at first 
sight having a very different aspect. The points in which 
it agrees, are, that the parts are folded up straight in the 
incipient state, and the fronds are two-branched, one branch 
being leafy, the other fertile. OpJiwglossum differs from 



138 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

Botrychium, most obviously, in its parts being all simple, 
while those of Botrychium are compound. Its habit of 
growth is precisely the same, but the fructification is very 
different, consisting of a distichous spike of imbedded spore- 
cases. There is but one native species. 

The name Opliwglossum literally means Adders-tongue, 
which is the English name borne by this plant. It is 
derived from the Greek ophios, a serpent, and glossa, a 
tongue ; and is applied in consequence of the resemblance 
of the fertile fronds to the tongue of a serpent. 

OPHIOGLOSSUM VULGATUM, Linnaus. The Common 
Adders-tongue. (Plate XVIII. fig. 3.) 

A small stemless plant, producing a few coarse brittle 
roots from a central crown which represents the stem, and 
which annually produces a bud from which the new frond 
arises. The young fronds are produced about May, and 
perish by the end of the summer. They grow from three 
inches to ten or twelve inches in height, with a smooth, 
round, hollow, succulent stipes of variable length. In the 
upper part this becomes divided into two branches, the one 
branch leafy, entire, smooth, ovate-obtuse, traversed by 
irregularly anastomosing veins, forming elongated meshes. 

The fertile branch is erect, contracted, about half its 



OSMUNDA. 139 

length being soriferous, forming a linear slightly tapering 
spike, which consists of two lines of crowded spore-cases 
imbedded in the substance of the spike, and occupying its 
two opposite sides. The spore-cases are, therefore, con- 
sidered as being produced on the margins of a contracted 
frond. "When mature, the margin splits across at intervals 
corresponding with the centre of each spore-case, so that 
eventually the spike resembles a double row of gaping 
spherical cavities. 

The Adder' s-tongue is very abundant in the localities 
where it is found, which are damp meadows and pastures, 
on a loamy soil. It is generally distributed over England, 
but is less abundant in Wales, and the other parts of the 
United Kingdom. The species is a common European 
plant, and is found in North America as well as in Africa. 

There is no difficulty in cultivating the Adders-tongue, 
whether in pots, or among an out-door collection of Ferns ; 
the essentials are a stiff loamy soil, and the constant pre- 
sence of water enough to prevent drought. 



Genus XYI. OSMUNDA, Linnaus. 
THE Osmunda is called the Eoyal Fern, and well it deserves 



140 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

the regal honours, for it is the most majestic of our indi- 
genous Perns. It is known by its large size, by having its 
fronds entirely leafy in the lower part, and entirely fertile 
at the top. In other words, the pinnae or branches at the 
apex of the fronds are changed from the ordinary leafy form, 
into dense masses of spore-cases, arranged in the aggregate 
in the same way as the leafy pinnules would have been. 
This mode of bearing the fructification renders it so 
strikingly obvious at first sight, and gives the plant an 
aspect so entirely different from that of those in which 
the fructification is more or less concealed by its position 
on the under surface, that the Oamunda, though classified 
as one of the Cryptogamous or flowerless plants, is often 
anomalously called the Flowering Fern. In truth, the 
contracted chocolate-coloured apex looks not unlike a 
dense panicle of small brown flowers crowning the tall 
straight stem, whose lower pinnse have much the appearance 
of broad green leaves. There is but one native species. 

The name of the genus has given rise to some speculation 
as to its derivation, and the question is still open. Some 
derive it from the Saxon muncl y which they say signifies 
strength. Others consider the word expressive of domestic 
peace, and derive it from the Saxon os, house, and mund, 



OSMUNDA. 141 

peace. Others,, again, have thought it commemorative, as 
the following legendary passage bears evidence. The point 
involved, however, we must leave antiquarians and philolo- 
gists to settle. 

At Loch Tyne dwelt the waterman old Osmund. Fairest 
among maidens was the daughter of Osmund the waterman. 
Her light brown hair and glowing cheek told of her Saxon 
origin, and her light steps bounded over the green turf like 
a young fawn in his native glades. Often, in the stillness 
of a summer's even, did the mother and her fair-haired 
child sit beside the lake, to watch the dripping and the 
flashing of the father's oars, as he skimmed right merrily 
towards them over the deep blue waters. Sounds, as of 
hasty steps, were heard one day, and presently a company 
of fugitives told with breathless haste that the cruel Danes 
were making way towards the ferry. Osmund heard them 
with fear. Suddenly the shouts of furious men came 
remotely on the ear. The fugitives rushed on ; and 
Osmund stood for a moment, when snatching up his oars 
he rowed his trembling wife and fair child to a small island 
covered with the great Osmund Eoyal, and assisting them 
to land, enjoined them to lie down beneath the tall Perns. 
Scarcely had the ferryman returned to his cottage, than a 



HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

company of Danes rushed in ; but they hurt him not, for 
they knew he could do them service. During the day and 
night did Osmund row backwards and forwards across the 
river, ferrying troops of those fierce men ; and when the 
last company was put on shore,, you might have seen Os- 
mund kneeling beside the river's bank, and returning heart- 
felt thanks to heaven for the preservation of his wife and 
child. Often in after years did Osmund speak of that day's 
peril ; and his fair child, grown up to womanhood, called 
the tall Fern by her father's name. 

OSMUNDA REGALIS, Limirtus. The Osmund Royal, or 
Flowering Fern. (Plate XIX. fig. 2.) 

' L&*J ^i s P^ ant has a verv stately aspect, growing to the 
average height of three or four feet, but sometimes found 
eight or ten feet high. It has what is called a tufted habit 
of growth, and its stem by degrees acquires height, so that 
in very old and luxuriant plants there is a trunk formed 
of from a foot to two feet high. From the crown of this 
trunk (whether that is seated close to the ground, or whether 
it is elevated) grow the fronds, which are seldom, less than 
two feet high in very weak and starved plants ; more usually 
from three to four feet, and forming a mass of a couple of 
yards across; or sometimes, as upon the margins of the 



OSMUNDA. 143 

Irish lakes, eight, ten, or twelve feet high, noble and 
majestic almost beyond conception. In the lovely lake 
scenery of Killarney this plant is very prominent ; and we 
need not be surprised at the rapturous descriptions which 
have been given of its arching fronds, dipping in the crystal 
lakes, and sheltering, with its broad green pinnse, the nu- 
merous aquatic birds which seek its canopy from the prying 
eyes of pleasure-hunting tourists. When young the fronds 
have generally a reddish stipes, and a glaucous surface, 
which at a later period becomes lost. These fronds are 
annual, growing up in spring, and perishing in the autumn. 
The form of the mature fronds is lanceolate ; they are bi- 
pinnate, the pinnse lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, with pin- 
nules of an oblong-ovate form, somewhat auricled at the 
base especially on the posterior side, bluntish at the apex, 
and saw-edged along the margin. Some fronds are en- 
tirely barren, and these differ from the fertile ones only in 
having the leafy pinnules continued all the way to the apex, 
instead of having the apex contracted, and bearing the 
spore-cases. It is not always, however, that the spore- 
cases when present are produced at the apex of the frond ; 
abnormal developments are not uncommon, and in these 
cases any portion of the pinnules may be seen converted 



144 HISTORY OP BRITISH FERNS. 

into spore- cases sometimes a few pinnae at the middle of 
the frond, while the apex is leafy, sometimes the base of 
a pinna., while its apex retains the leafy form, sometimes the 
base of a pinnule here and there, just its apex too, being 
broad and leafy ; but the usual condition is to find a few 
of the shortened pinnse, which form the apex of the frond, 
contracted and soriferous throughout. 

The venation, as seen in the barren fronds, consists of 
a prominent midvein, bearing once or twice forked venules 
proceeding to the margin in direct lines. In the fertile 
parts of the frond, only the midrib of the pinnules is fully 
developed, and the spore-cases are attached to a small por- 
tion of the venules which becomes developed just to serve 
as a receptacle. The spore-cases are subglobose, shortly 
stalked, reticulated, and two-valved, opening vertically. 

The Osmund Eoyal is a widely-distributed plant, oc- 
curring in favourable localities, that is, marshy and boggy 
situations, throughout the United Kingdom, and, as already 
mentioned, extremely abundant and luxuriant in some parts 
of Ireland. It is common throughout Europe, and occurs 
in the United States of America. 

This plant is especially suited, in cultivation, to occupy the 
base of rock-work abutting upon a piece of water, where its 



POLYPODIUM. 145 

roots may be placed within the reach of the water. For 
the margins of ponds or lakes, or for any other damp loca- 
lities, it is also well adapted ; and in such situations only 
does it acquire anything like its natural vigour. It should 
have peat earth for its roots. The best way to establish 
it is, to procure strong vigorous patches from localities 
where it abounds, and these, if removed carefully any time 
before growth commences or even after it is considerably 
advanced will succeed perfectly. This course is far more 
satisfactory than to make use of weaker plants in the hope 
of their eventually gaining the requisite vigour to produce 
the effect desired. 



Genus I. POLYPODIUM, Zinnaws. 

THE Polypodies, which botanists call by the Latin name of 
Polypodium, are known from all the other British Perns, 
by their having the spore-cases arranged in little round 
patches here and there on the back of the frond, these 
patches not being at any time, or at any stage of their 
development, covered by the membranous film which, it 
has been explained, is called an indusium ; hence they are 
said to be naked, or non-indusiate. This family includes 

L 



146 HISTORY OP BRITISH FERNS. 

four distinct kinds, with some variations of the common 
sort; some of these have the fronds persistent, and so 
become evergreen, while in others they last but from spring 
to autumn. 

The Polypodies derive their name Polypodinm, which 
literally means, many-footed, from the branching of their 
creeping stems, the tubercular protuberances on which, in 
the earlier stages of development, have some supposed re- 
semblance to those on the feelers of Polypes. 

POLYPODIUM CALCAREUM, Smith. The Limestone Poly- 
pody. (Plate III. fig. 1.) 

This Pern is known from P. Dryopteris to which it is 
so nearly related that some botanists do not consider it dis- 
tinct by having its fronds less decidedly, though somewhat 
three-branched, and by having its surface covered with small 
stalked glands, which give a mealy appearance to every part 
of the fronds. To us these two plants appear quite dis- 
tinct, for, in addition to the points of difference already re- 
ferred to, the fronds of this are of a dull deep green, more 
rigid, and without the marked deflexure of the rachis so 
obvious in its ally ; and the young fronds, instead of being 
rolled up in three little balls, have their pinnae all rolled up 
separately. The glandular surface of the whole frond is 



Plate III. 




POLYPODIUM. 147 

very readily seen with a pocket-lens, a necessary aid, by 
the bye, to the study of Ferns. 

The fronds grow from six inches to a foot in height, 
nearly triangular, with the base shorter than the sides, the 
stipes about equalling the leafy portion in length. They 
are partially three-branched, but the lateral branches are 
much smaller than the central one, and attached to the 
stipes by a more slender rachis. The lower branches are 
pinnate, with pinnatifid pinnse ; the upper branch pinnate, 
with its lower pinnse again pinnate, and the upper ones pin- 
natifid, as also is the apex of the frond and of the lower 
branches. The pinnules or lobes have a distinct midvein, 
with simple or slightly branched venules, near the termina- 
tion of which, in a marginal series, the sori are produced. 

This is one of the few Eerns which are found in calca- 
reous or chalky soils. It is rare, and local in its distribu- 
tion, being, we believe, almost confined to rocky limestone 
districts, and occurring chiefly in the northern and western 
parts of the island. In cultivation it does not require so 
much moisture and shade as most other Ferns, but a lime- 
stone soil is not at all essential to its well-being. 

The names of Poly podium Robertianum and of Lastrea 
Robertiana have been given to this species ; and the former 



148 HISTORY OP BRITISH FERNS. 

of these seems to have the precedence on the ground of 
priority, but it has not as yet been adopted in this country. 
POLYPODITJM DRYOPTERIS, Linnaus. The Tender Three- 
branched Polypody, sometimes called the Oak Pern. (Plate 

ii. % i.) 

This is at once known among the Polypodies by having 
its quite smooth fronds divided into three branches; and 
when the fronds are but partially developed this latter cha- 
racteristic is available, for the three branches are rolled up 
separately, and the fronds in the stage alluded to resemble 
three little balls set on short slender wires, and supported 
by one which is longer and stouter. It is, however, alto- 
gether a slender and delicate plant, its height being com- 
monly not more than six inches, often less, arid sometimes 
more, its colour a pale bright green, and its texture fragile. 
Hence it is at once destroyed by frost, and soon becomes 
rusty and withered by exposure to heat and drought. When 
growing in a cool, shady situation, however, it continues 
fresh and cheerful-looking from April, when it usually starts 
into growth, onwards until it is affected by autumnal cold. 
In pots, in Wardian cases, or on sheltered, shady rock -work, 
it is alike desirable for cultivation. 

The fronds of this delicate little Pern grow from a slender 



Plate II. 




POLYPODIUM. 149 

creeping stem, which often forms densely matted tufts. 
They are quite smooth, and of a bright light green colour, 
supported by stipes which are usually about twice as long as 
the leafy part, and are slender, brittle, and dark -coloured. 
The outline is almost pentagonal, the frond being divided 
into three branches, each of which is of a triangular form. 
One peculiarity about this species, which is in a slight degree 
shared by its near ally, P. calcareum, is the deflexion of the 
rachis at the point where the lateral branches of the frond 
take their rise, but this feature is greatly more obvious in 
P. Dryopteris. The fronds are divided thus : each branch 
is pinnate at the base, and pinnatifid towards its point ; the 
pinnae are also pinnate at their base, then pinnatifid, becom- 
ing acute and nearly entire at the point ; the pinnules and 
ultimate lobes are oblong and obtuse. The pair of pinnules 
at the base of each pinna, close to the principal rachis, are 
placed so that when the pinnae are exactly opposite they 
stand in the form of a cross ; the two towards the apex of 
the branch being smaller than the opposite pair, and more 
nearly parallel with the rachis. 

The pinnules or lobes have a rather tortuous midvein, 
from which the venules branch out alternately, being, in 
those of moderate size, simple, with a sorus near their ex- 



150 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

tremity, and in those which are larger and more compound, 
branched, with a sorus on the lower branch. The fructifi- 
cation is very unequally produced in different seasons and 
localities, being sometimes crowded, and at other times very 
sparingly scattered over the fronds. 

P. Dryopieris is not an uncommon species, but it occurs 
only in mountainous situations and the drier parts of damp 
woods : in England mostly in the north ; in Scotland dis- 
tributed pretty generally; very rare in Ireland. 

This species has been called Polystichum Dryopteris and 
Lastrea Dryopteris. 

POLYPODIUM PHEGOPTERIS, Lwnaus. The Beech Poly- 
pody, sometimes called Mountain Pern. (Plate II. fig. 2.) 

This is a somewhat fragile plant, enduring no longer than 
till autumn, or the appearance of the first frosts. It grows 
wild in moist mountainous situations and in damp woods, 
often common enough where present, but rather limited in 
its range, occurring, however, in England to the southward, 
westward, and northward; pretty generally distributed in 
Scotland ; but rarely met with in Ireland. It has a slender 
but extensively creeping and slightly scaly stem, producing 
black fibrous roots, and, about May, throwing up delicate 
hairy pale green fronds, which, when full grown, measure 



POLYPODIUM. 151 

from six inches to a foot in height. The stipes, which is 
fleshy and very brittle, is generally twice as long as the 
leafy part of the frond ; near its base are a few small almost 
colourless scales. The fronds are triangular, extended into 
a long narrow point. In the lower part they are pinnate ; 
but this distinction of the parts is seldom carried beyond 
the two lowest pairs of branches, those of the upper por- 
tions of the frond being connected at the base, in what 
is technically called a pinnatifid manner : hence this Fern 
is said to be subpinnate, which, in this case, means par- 
tially pinnate, or pinnate at the very base only. The 
pinnse have a narrow and acutely lance-shaped outline, and 
are deeply pinnatifid; they usually stand opposite each 
other in pairs, the lowest pair being directed downwards, 
towards the root, and set on at a short distance from the 
rest. The united base of the pairs of the other pinnse, 
when they stand exactly opposite each other, exhibits a 
cruciform figure more or less strikingly obvious ; and by 
this mark, in conjunction with the subpinnate mode of divi- 
sion, this species may be known from the other British Poly- 
podies. The veins in the lobes of the pinnse are pinnate ; 
that is to say, there is a slender midvein, from which al- 
ternate venules mostly unbranched extend to the margin ; 



152 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

those near the base of the lobes bearing each one small 
circular sorus near their extremity the fructification thus 
becoming almost marginal. 

This is a very delicate and graceful Pern for pot-culture 
or for a Wardian case, and requires plenty of percolating 
moisture. On the damp, shady sides of sheltered artificial 
rock-work, in the open air, it grows with tolerable vigour. 

Polystickum Pkegopleris and Lastrea Phegopteris are 
names which have been proposed for the Beech Fern. 

POLYPODIUM VULGARE, I<inn<zus. The Common Poly- 
pody. (Plate I. fig. 2.) 

This is an evergreen Pern, growing abundantly on pol- 
lard trunks, mossy banks, moist rocks and walls, and old 
thatched roofs ; and pretty generally distributed over the 
United Kingdom. When sheltered the fronds are of a 
lively green, and it may be then recognized by the com- 
paratively large circular patches of golden spore-cases; 
indeed, it may generally be known by this feature alone, no 
other native sort having the fructification at all similar in 
appearance. It grows with a creeping stem as thick as 
one's finger, which is covered over with pale brown chaffy 
taper-pointed scales. From its upper side spring the 
fronds, and from its lower side chiefly the branching fibrous 



POLYPODIUM. 153 

roots by which it clings to its support. The fronds, if ex- 
posed to frost, perish ; but if at all sheltered they remain 
green during winter, and until after young ones have been 
produced, which happens generally towards the end of 
May. The stipes or stalk of the full-grown fronds is usually 
nearly equal in length to the leafy portion; the entire frond 
measuring from six to eighteen inches in length. The 
frond itself, that is, the leafy part, is lance-shaped in outline, 
but cut in from the margin along both sides nearly as far 
as the midrib or rachis, and thus becomes what is called 
pinnatifid. The portions into which it is divided are 
called the lobes, or segments, or divisions of the frond ; and 
in this case, they are usually oblong in form, generally 
rounded at the end, but sometimes tapering to a blunt 
point, and occasionally notched along the margin. 

Each lobe has a slightly tortuous midvein, producing al- 
ternate lateral veins (venules), which generally have about 
four veinlets or little veins disposed alternately ; it is the 
lowest of these veinlets, on the sides towards the apex of 
the frond, which produces the sorus when it is present ; the 
rest, which are barren, terminate in club-shaped apices, 
which are very conspicuously seen when a fresh frond is 
held up between the eye and a strong light. Most of the 



HISTORY OP BRITISH FERNS. 

fronds of this kind of Pern produce fructification, which, 
however, is usually confined to the upper half of the fronds, 
and has generally become mature by the end of September. 

The most important variety is the Welsh Polypody, called 
Polypodium camdricum by Linnseus. In' this the lobes of 
the frond are broader, and, instead of being simple, are 
deeply and irregularly lobed a second time, the segments 
being rather sharply toothed. This form, which is cer- 
tainly only a variety of the common Polypody, is almost 
always found without fructification. Under slight shelter, 
where its fronds are persistent, it is one of the most beautiful 
of what are called hardy Perns. 

Other varieties which have been proposed are bifidum, 
in which the lobes are more or less regularly two-cleft at 
the apex; serratum, in which they are deeply saw-edged; 
and acutum, in which they are drawn out to a long narrow 
point. The forms, however, are not constant, and are hence 
of but small importance. 

The species and its varieties grow freely under culti- 
vation, either planted in pots, or on rock-work in a shady 
situation. 



155 



Genus V. POLYSTICHUM, Both. 

THE Polystichums form a small and very distinct group of 
evergreen Ferns, some forms of which rank among the most 
beautiful of our native species. They once formed part of 
the genus Aspidium, the token of admission to which, was 
the presence of round seed-patches covered by a scale. 
From the allied genus Lastrea, the PolysticJiums are known 
by their having the scale-like cover of the sori circular, 
without a lateral notch, its attachment being by a little 
stalk in the centre : this form is called peltate. To a prac- 
tised eye they are also known by a more rigid texture, and 
by having altogether a more spiny appearance than even the 
spinulose species of Lastrea ; but these means of recognition 
the novice can turn to but little account. The alpine form 
of the genus is strictly evergreen, and the others acquire this 
character when in a sheltered situation, but if they are much 
exposed, the fronds will be killed by a sharp frost. In 
general, however, they retain their fronds without much dis- 
figurement from frost, quite through the autumnal quarter, 
and often far into winter. The British species of Pofysti- 
chum are three in number. 

The name Polystichum is compounded of two Greek 



156 HISTORY OF BEITISH FERNS. 

words -poly, and stichos, signifying many, and order ; .and it 
is applied to these plants in allusion to the numerous re- 
gular lines of sori, which are seen distributed over the fronds. 

POLYSTICHUM ACULEATUM, Roth. The Common Prickly 
Fern. 

This is a species almost evergreen in a sheltered situation, 
and one of those which are well suited by boldness of cha- 
racter for the decoration of rocky scenery. It is a stout 
plant, having the fronds a couple of feet long, and springing 
from a stout tufted stem or crown, whence they grow up 
in a circle, about the month of April, and take, a somewhat 
erect position. Their form is lanceolate, in the most perfect 
state of the species broadly lanceolate, but in a variety 
presently to be referred to, very narrowly lanceolate. The 
texture is harsh and rigid, the upper surface dark green and 
shining, and the short stipes densely enveloped in rust- 
coloured membranous pointed scales. The fronds are bi- 
pinnate, with alternate pinnse, these pinnae being again more 
or less perfectly divided into a series of pinnules, which are 
either decurrent, that is, insensibly merging in the substance 
of the rachis which supports them, or else, are tapered to 
a wedge-shaped base, and attached to the rachis by the 
cuneate point. The general form of these pinnules is some- 



POLYSTICHUM. 157 

what crescent-shaped, for they have, as is universal in the 
British forms at least of this genus, the upper base extended 
into a small auricle, or enlarged lobe, and the lower base as 
it were abscised ; while the apex is tapered off to an acute 
point, and the margin is serrated, with spiny teeth. 

The veins are alternately branched, and do not join 
together or anastomose, but extend free to the margin ; and 
the fructification, which is generally abundant, and often 
crowded, is ranged in a line on each side the midrib of the 
pinnules, and also on the larger pinnules on each side the 
midvein of the basal lobes or auricles. The indusium is 
circular, and attached by a little depression or stalk in its 
centre. 

A variety called lobatum, and considered a distinct species 
by some botanists, differs chiefly in the narrow outline of 
the frond, the pinnules of which are much more decidedly 
decurrent ; indeed, every possible variation in the consolida- 
tion of the pinnules is to be met with, between the ordinary 
bipinnate form of PolysticJium aculeatwm, and a simply 
pinnate form of the species, which, from its resemblance to 
P. Lonckitis, has been called lonchitidioides. This latter 
form, however, owing its origin to the peculiar circumstances 
of growth only, cannot properly be recognized as a variety, 



158 HISTORY OP BRITISH FERNS. 

but the intermediate state, which is the most common of 
these abnormal forms, is at least sufficiently different to be 
considered distinct. 

This common and free-growing Pern is found in hedge- 
banks, and similar situations; and being abundant, easily 
cultivated, nearly evergreen, and withal possessing consi- 
derable elegance of growth, has much to recommend its 
admission to a prominent position in the Pern garden. 

This plant is often, even now, referred to the genus Aspi- 
dium, and was formerly included under that of Poly podium. 

POLYSTICHUM ANGULARE, PresL The Angular-lobed 
Prickly Pern. (Plate Y. fig. 2.) 

A strong- growing, tufted- stemmed species, sometimes 
forming large masses. The fronds are lanceolate, from two 
to four or five feet high, persistent through ordinary winters, 
and in sheltered situations retaining their verdure unim- 
paired until the new fronds are produced. It is one of the 
most graceful of all the native species. The stipes, which 
varies from a third to a fourth of the length of the entire 
frond, is very shaggy, with reddish chaffy scales, which scales, 
though of smaller size, are continued throughout the upper 
parts of the frond. The fronds are bipinnate, with numerous 
tapering, distinct pinnse, having their pinnules flat, some- 



POLYSTICHUM. 159 

what crescent-shaped, as already explained, often bluntish at 
the apex, but sometimes acute, always with spinulose mar - 
ginal serratures, and sometimes, in a few of the lower pin- 
nules, with deep lobes, so that the pinnules become pimia- 
tifid. The pinnules are tapered to a broad-angled base, the 
lines of which usually exceed a right angle, and they are 
attached to the rachis of the pinna by a short, distinct, 
slender stalk, which does not form a line with either margin. 

The pinnules have branched free veins ; and the sori are 
generally ranged in a row on each side the midrib, and are 
covered by a peltate scale or indusium. 

A form sufficiently distinct to be regarded as a variety is 
that to which allusion has been made, as having its basal 
pinnules deeply lobed ; this we call sub-tripinnatum. It 
does not differ in any other particular, but, being rather more 
lax than the other forms, is the most elegant of them all. 
There are many other slight variations, some with narrow 
acute pinnules, some with blunt rounded pinnules, others 
with the pinnules deeply serrated, and some very conspicu- 
ously spinulose, but these differences probably do not point 
to any permanently distinctive characters. We find the 
sub-tripinnate form constant in a cultivated state. 

This is a not uncommon Pern, growing in hedge-banks 



160 HISTORY OF BRITISH FEBNS. 

and in lowland woods, preferring, as do most if not all the 
larger Ferns, the presence of plenty of free (not stagnant) 
water. As a cultivated plant, either for pots or rock-work, 
it is most desirable, and acquiring, as it does, considerable 
size, it may be made to produce some striking effects in 
ornamental scenery. 

Like its congeners, this was formerly, and now is by 
some, considered to be an Aspidium. 

POLYSTICHUM LONCHITIS, Eoth. The Holly Pern. (Plate 
IV. fig. 2.) 

This is a rigid and prickly-looking species, whence comes 
the English name. It has a scaly tufted stem, from the 
crown terminating which, the young fronds are produced 
early in each spring ; these fronds remain fresh and vigorous 
until after those of the succeeding year are developed, so 
that the species is truly evergreen in its habit of growth. 
The size of the fronds is very variable ; sometimes they are 
not more than six inches long, and cultivated plants do not 
often much exceed this stature. In damp and but slightly 
elevated situations it becomes more luxuriant, the fronds 
sometimes attaining a foot and a half in length, and then 
having a vigour and robustness of aspect never acquired, as 
far as we know, in cultivation, at least in England. The 



POLYSTICHUM. 1G1 

climate of Ireland seems more congenial to it, and we un- 
derstand it is there cultivated with facility. The fronds 
are narrow in outline, their figure being linear-lanceolate ; 
they are once pinnate, the pinnae being short, crowded, and 
somewhat crescent-shaped, the upper side at the base having 
an ear-shaped projection, the lower side being, as it were, 
cut away. The margin is set with spinous teeth. 

The veins are twice branched, the branches extending to 
the margin without joining with others. The clusters of 
spore-cases form a line parallel with, and on each side of the 
midrib, and are covered each by a membranous circular scale, 
which is attached by a short central stalk. 

A true rock-Pern, occurring on the bleak mountains of 
Scotland and in the milder climate of Ireland, as well as 
rarely in the north of England and in Wales. It is a very 
distinct, and, when vigorous, a not inelegant species, but 
exceedingly difficult of cultivation, and seldom seen thriving 
under artificial treatment. 

The Holly Pern has been at different times called Aspi- 
dium Lonchitis and Polypodmm Lonchitis. 



162 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

Genus XL PTERIS, Lmnaus. 

Pteris is the most common of all our Perns. It is that 
which occurs almost everywhere in woods and in sandy 
wastes, often appropriating to itself the whole surface of the 
ground, but seeming to possess the peculiarity of avoiding 
chalky soil. It is a very variable plant in its appearance, 
owing to differences in its size and development dependent 
on the circumstances in which it grows. Sometimes in dry, 
very sandy soil, the plant becomes a pigmy, not reaching a 
foot in height, and being merely bipinnate. The opposite 
extreme occurs when the plant is growing on a damp hedge- 
bank in a warm, shady lane, where it attains eight or ten 
feet in height, and is proportionately compound in its de- 
velopment. Its more usual size is from three to four feet in 
height. Under circumstances which favour the most luxu- 
riant development, this common and usually vulgar- looking 
plant combines the most noble and graceful aspect, perhaps, 
which is borne by any of our indigenous species, its fronds 
scrambling up among the bushes which sustain them at the 
base, while their graceful feathery-looking tops form, over- 
head, a living arch of the tenderest green. The Pteris, or 
Bracken, is known among the native Ferns by having the 







Uf ' fl 

uvi/ud/juuuAA. , }T|rl/i VK ^ 



PTEUIS. 163 

edges of all the little divisions of its fronds furnished with 
a line of spore-cases. No other of our native species has 
the fructification arranged in continuous lines except this 
and the Blechnum and the Pteris may be readily known 
from that by the lines being in it confined to the margin, 
leaving the centre unoccupied, while in Blechnum the mar- 
gin is unoccupied by the sori. 

Pteris is a Greek name for a Fern, and is derived from, 
the word pteron, which signifies a feather ; and, of course, 
is here applied in reference to the graceful feather-like 
aspect which the fronds of Perns generally possess. When 
the plant is luxuriant this name is quite as applicable to the 
Bracken as to any other known Fern. This consideration 
is perhaps enough to justify the application to this species, 
by the older writers, of the name of Female Fern, which 
scarcely seems appropriate to the commoner uncouth-look- 
ing form which the plant more usually bears. 

PTERIS AQTJILINA, Linn&w. The Common Brakes, or 
Bracken. (Plate XVII. fig. 1.) 

This Fern has a creeping caudex, and one that creeps 
very extensively too, just beneath the surface of the soil, 
though in some cases descending to a great depth perpen- 
dicularly ; it is recorded by Mr. Newman that he has found 



164 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

the steins thus penetrating to a depth of fifteen feet. This 
caudex is thickish, black-looking, and succulent, containing 
a good deal of starch. Prom it are produced, at intervals, 
the annual fronds, which generally make their appearance 
about the latter end of May, when there is little risk of 
frosts, for the least frost would destroy them, and, indeed, 
it is not uncommon for the earlier growth to be destroyed 
in exposed places by the very slight frosts which occur at 
that season of the year. The fronds themselves have been 
variously described, and often erroneously, for they are not 
unfrequently said to be three- branched, a form which really 
occurs in one of the smaller Polypodies (P. Dryopteris). 
Now, they are not properly three-branched, and except when 
very much starved and stunted, do not approach that form 
very nearly. They are, in reality, bipinnate, or when very 
luxuriant tripinnate, the pinnae standing opposite in pairs, 
each pair in succession becoming fully developed, while the 
main rachis is extending upwards, and the next pair is be- 
ginning to unfold. The mature fronds are thus truly bi- or 
tri-pinnate, with the pairs of pinna3 standing opposite. 
When the fronds are much diminished in size by the sterility 
of the soil which sustains them, they become almost trian- 
gular, and then have somewhat the appearance of a three- 



PTEEIS. 165 

branched frond, the development of the lower pair of 
branches not leaving the plant energy enough to carry up 
its rachis, and produce the other pairs of pinnae which it 
would normally possess. That this is the true habit of the 
species is still more clearly exhibited when it attains its 
greatest luxuriance, for the full-grown fronds then consist 
merely of a series of pairs of branches from the bottom to 
the top. The unrolled young fronds are very curious ob- 
jects, and the watching of their development will be found 
full of interest. 

The stipes is downy while young, and furnished with 
sharp angles when mature, which, if it be incautiously 
pulled, will wound the hand severely. The part under 
ground is black, like the creeping stem itself, and is spindle- 
shaped just at the base, where it permanently retains the 
downy or velvety surface which was present in the upper 
portions while young. 

Average specimens of the fronds are tripinnate, that is, 
they produce a certain number of pairs of branch-like pinnoe, 
which branches are bipinnate. We must confine our fur- 
ther description to one of these branches, selected from the 
lower part of the frond, where they are more perfectly deve- 
loped than in the upper parts such a branch, in fact, as is 



166 HISTORY OF BRITISH ERNS. 

represented in Plate XVII. The general form is ovate, a 
little elongated; that of its pinnae (the secondary pinnae) 
narrow lanceolate. These latter are placed rather closely 
together, and are again divided into a series of pinnules. 
Two forms will be met with, one apparently equally common 
with the other : in one the pinnules are undivided, and at- 
tached to the rachis by their base without the intervention 
of any stalk, and these bear a line of spore-cases along each 
margin ; in the other the pinnules are larger, more elongated, 
and deeply pinnatifid or sinuate, the margins of these lobes 
bearing the lines of spore-cases. The apices of the primary 
and secondary pinnae, and of the pinnatifid pinnules, become 
less and less divided, until at last the extreme points form 
an entire lobe, more or less elongated. 

In its venation there is some variety, dependent on the 
differences of structure and development which we have 
already pointed out. We shall be most intelligible by ex- 
plaining the form represented in Plate XYIL, which shows 
the least divided form of the plant. Each pinnule, as is 
there shown, has a distinct midvein, producing alternate 
lateral venules, which become twice forked, and extend to 
the margin, where they meet a longitudinal marginal vein 
which forms the receptacle. The indusium consists of a 



PTEEIS. 167 

bleached, membranous, fringed expansion of the upper skin 
or epidermis of the fronds, which reflexes so as to cover the 
spore-cases, but there is here another membrane which lies 
beneath the spore-cases, and is no doubt a similar expansion 
of the skin of the under surface. 

It has been already remarked that there are two forms of 
this plant commonly met with. These are so very dissimilar 
that we have elsewhere* proposed to distinguish them as 
varieties, applying to the pinnatifid form the name ver a, and 
to the more entire form that of integerrima. 

This, which is the most abundant of our indigenous 
species, is also widely distributed in other parts of the world, 
and bears a variety of names, from having been supposed to 
be distinct by those who have met with it from such widely 
separated localities. 

Being so common, and in an ordinary state uncouth- 
looking, it is not a plant for cultivation to any extent. In 
warm, damp wilderness- scenery, however, where it would 
attain great luxuriance, and the situation is such as would 
enable it to develope the arching character already men- 
tioned, it might very properly be introduced. 

* Handbook of British Ferns : p. 134. 



168 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

Genus X. SCOLOPENDRIUM, Smith. 

THIS genus is botanically very distinct from all our other 
native .Ferns ; and from other points of view is exceedingly 
interesting. There is only one British species, but of this 
there are several varieties, which have a perfectly distinct 
aspect, owing to peculiarities in their development. They 
are all evergreen, and on this account, as well as by reason 
of their ornamental appearance and hardiness, they are 
among the best of all Perns for out-door rock-work. The 
genus is known from all others by the peculiarities of its 
sori, which, though forming parallel oblique lines at intervals 
on each side the midvein, and having the appearance of 
being single if seen when mature, are in reality composed 
of two sori, set face to face, and so close together as to be- 
come laterally confluent. This is best seen just at the stage 
when the indusia are bursting ; indeed, at a later stage of 
development an unpractised eye would probably fail to ob- 
serve any evidence that such was really the structure. 
Nevertheless it is so; and the fructification, technically 
speaking, consists of sori confluent in pairs, the two sori 
forming each pair being placed face to face. 

Scolopendrium is merely an alteration of Scolopendra, the 



Plate IT. 







SCOLOPENDRITJM. 169 

scientific name of the insect better known as the centipede ; 
and the name is applied from a fancied resemblance (in the 
position, we suppose) between the feet of a centipede and 
the lines of fructification produced on the fronds of the Fern. 

SCOLOPENDRITJM vuLGARE, Symons. The Common 
Hart's-tongue. (Plate XV. fig. 1.) 

This is a common plant, nevertheless its shining bright 
green, though simple fronds, contrasting so beautifully with 
the feathery aspect much more common among the Ferns, 
procure for it admirers whether seen in a wild or cultivated 
state. It grows in tufts ; the fronds, which are evergreen, 
vary in length from six inches to a foot and a half, and even 
more, and are either stiff and erectish when growing under 
circumstances which render them dwarf, or more or less 
spreading and drooping when in situations which are favour- 
able to enlarged development : in the former case the fronds 
are thicker and more leathery in texture; in the latter, 
thinner and less rigid, from being produced in very damp 
shady situations. The usual form of the fronds is what is 
called strap-shaped, that is, narrow oblong-lanceolate, much 
elongated; they taper towards, and are acute at, the apex, 
narrowing a little downwards, and becoming cordate at the 
base ; the margin is entire, or very slightly wavy, and they 



170 HISTORY OE BRITISH FERNS. 

are supported on shaggy stipes of about a third of their 
entire length. 

The fronds have a strong midrib or costa, extending 
throughout their whole length, from which are produced 
forked veins, the branches of which (venules) lie parallel, 
and proceed direct towards the margin, terminating just 
within the edge in a club-shaped apex. The veins are usually 
forked twice, but they are not constant to any exact num- 
ber of divisions. The sori, which are oblong patches of 
unequal length, lying in the direction of the veins at short 
intervals along the upper two-thirds of the length of the 
frond, are each composed of two proximate lines of fructi- 
fication laterally united ; each of these lines, however, consist- 
ing of a complete sorus, so that the two united are properly 
called a twin sorus. This is the mark of the genus Scolo- 
pendrium. This twin sorus is always produced between two 
fascicles of veins ; that is, the lowermost venule produced by 
one vein, and the uppermost venule produced by the vein 
next below these two venules lying, of course, contiguous, 
each become the receptacle upon which a line of spore-cases 
is produced. The indusia which cover these two lines of 
spore-cases have their attachment respectively on the upper 
and lower sides of their venules, the other edges overlapping 



SCOLOPENDRIUM. 171 

one the other ; the free margin, therefore, is exterior with 
reference to the fascicle of venules to which it belongs. 
When very young there is no evident trace of separation at 
the part where they overlap, but as they advance towards 
maturity the separation becomes apparent, and they even- 
tually open down the centre, one indusium turning upwards 
and the other downwards, the two lines of spore-cases 
they had covered becoming confluent and undistinguishable 
without manipulation. 

This is the ordinary form of Scolopendrium ; but there are 
some very curious and distinct varieties, differing only, 
however, in the form of the fronds, and not in the fructifi- 
cation, where it is present. Of these varieties it is deserving 
of especial mention that they are perfectly constant under 
cultivation, although they have, no doubt, originated in 
aberrations, that is to say, accidental variations of the ori- 
ginal species, which have been perpetuated either naturally 
or by art. 

The most beautiful of these varieties is that called cris- 
pum, in which, while the same outline of frond prevails, 
yet the leafy portion is so much more developed than the 
midrib, that the margin becomes excessively undulated, 
giving the fronds a very elegant curled or crisped ap- 



172 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

pearance. This sort is usually barren, though we have 
seen it, when somewhat less curled, produce the usual fruc- 
tification. 

Another variety is called polysckides, or angustifolium 
by some. The fronds of this are linear, and blunt at the 
apex, much narrower than in the common sort, and the 
margin is deeply and irregularly lobed, and crenated. This 
sort is fertile, and its sori are short, and instead of being 
ranged in a single series on each side the midrib, as is 
usual in the common sort, they form two irregular lines 
on each side. A very curious form, lobed in the same 
manner as this variety, but having more the outline of the 
common sort, has been found by Sir W. C. Trevelyan, in 
Somersetshire; it is remarkable in having a longitudinal 
ridge on each side between the midrib and margin, on the 
exterior of which ridge the short interrupted sori are pro- 
duced. 

A third variety is multifidum. This has the fronds forked 
either near the apex or sometimes near the base; each 
branch is again more or less repeatedly forked, and the 
apices of all the forks are developed into irregular fan- 
shaped leafy expansions, to which the term multifid is ap- 
plied. Sometimes the fronds are merely forked once or 



SCOLOPENDKIUM . 173 

twice, without being multifid, and this state has been called 
lobatum; in other cases the stipes itself becomes forked, 
bearing multifid branches, and this has been called ramosum ; 
but it may be doubted whether these are more than ac- 
cidental variations of the form called multifidum. This 
multifid sort is fertile. 

The common HartVtongue is an inhabitant of hedge- 
banks, of old walls, and sometimes of the interior of wells, 
in which latter situation it acquires great luxuriance. It 
is one of the more commonly distributed species in England 
and in Ireland, less abundant in Scotland; and also found 
all over Europe. The varieties are rare in a wild state, and 
are now better known as cultivated plants. 

Being an evergreen, and a plant of free growth, the Hart' s- 
tongue is one of the most desirable hardy Ferns we possess 
for open rock- work. Its broad simple fronds serve to con- 
trast with the more divided or compound forms ; and its 
varieties all have a different aspect, combined with the 
same good qualities of hardiness and endurance. Shady 
and rather humid places are those in which this plant most 
delights, although, as is evident from its sometimes growing 
on walls, it will live in more exposed and arid situations. 
The plants, however, never acquire much vigour under such 



174 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

circumstances, and have mostly a starved and stunted aspect. 
They are not particular as to soil, excepting that such as 
contains fibrous or half- decayed vegetable matter, or the 
damp surface of some porous stone, is much preferable to 
soil which is much spent and comminuted, as indeed is the 
case with respect to all Ferns. 

The HartVtongue is sometimes called Scolopendrium offi- 
cinarum, and has been named Scolopendrium P/iyllitidis, 
Asplenium Scolopendrium, or Pkyllitis Scolopendrium. 



Genus XIY. TEICHOMANES, Linnaus. , 

THE Trichomanes is the most rare genus among our native 
Eerns; the indigenous species, of which only one occurs, 
being among the few which are met with very rarely indeed, 
and within a very narrow range. It, however, is not the 
most rare species, although very unfrequent, and local. 
Unlike in texture all the other native kinds excepting the 
Hymenophyllums, being quite pellucid, and of the most 
delicately crisped appearance imaginable, it is soon distin- 
guished by this mark alone. The fructification, too, is here 
totally unlike that of all others, except the Hymenophyllums, 



TEICHOMANES. 175 

from which in the native species it is easily distinguishable, 
although in some exotic kinds the differences almost vanish. 
The sure technical mark by which to distinguish Trichomanes 
and Hymenophyttum among the British Ferns, lies in the 
fact of their spore-cases being contained within deep urn- 
shaped pits or recesses at the margin : in these two families 
the fructification is at the margin instead of being situated 
at the back of the fronds. Trichomanes is known from Ey- 
menopJiyllum by its urns, or involucres as they are called, 
being entire, while those of Hymenophyllum are split length- 
wise into two valves. In both cases the spore-cases are 
clustered around hair-like receptacles, which are, in fact, 
the ends of the veins of the fronds projecting into the urns. 
In Hymenophyllum these hairs are always shorter than the 
urn, but in Trichomanes it is usual for them to project more 
or less, so that the fronds become somewhat bristly when 
very full of fructification ; and hence has arisen the com- 
mon name of Bristle Fern, which is applied to the group. 

The name Trichomanes itself has the same signification : 
it comes from two Greek words, meaning hair, and excess, 
in reference to these projecting hair-like receptacles. 

TEICHOMANES RADICALS, Swartz. The Bristle Fern. 
(Plate XVIII. fig. 1.) 



176 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

This very beautiful plant exists only in the immediate 
neighbourhood of waterfalls,, and in situations where a con- 
stant moisture is maintained. This is, indeed, quite neces- 
sary to it, on account of its semi-membranous texture, 
which shrinks before an arid atmosphere ; and hence it can 
only be successfully cultivated when kept quite close, and 
constantly wetted over-head. This species has a creeping 
stem, smallish, wiry, and black-looking, clothed with 
pointed scales. The fronds are three or four times pinnatifid, 
cut up into small linear segments, which are entire or bifid 
at the apex, and have a stout nerve or vein running up their 
centre, and rendered very conspicuous in consequence of the 
thin pellucid texture of the leafy expansions which surround 
it. Or the frond may be described as consisting of a series 
of three or four times branched rigid veins, margined 
throughout by a thin, pellucid, cellular expansion, or wing, 
a greater or less number of the apices of the veins becoming 
surrounded by the cellular membrane in the form of an urn 
or vase, and within them bearing the fructification. 

The fronds are pendulous, and vary from an angular- 
ovate to a lanceolate form, the divisions being considerably 
undulated, so that they acquire a crisped appearance. The 
first series of lobes are usually of an ovate-lanceolate form ; 



TEICHOMANES. 177 

the next series shorter, more ovate, and the third series of 
divisions narrow, more or less linear. The ultimate branches 
of the veins which extend into the divisions of this third 
series, end just at or within the apex of the lobes if they are 
barren; but if they are fertile, they are produced beyond 
the margin, and surrounded at the base by the urn-shaped 
involucre, within which the spore-cases are placed. Some- 
times the involucre is so placed as to appear immersed 
within the margin, but it more frequently projects beyond 
the margin. There is also considerable variation as to the 
length to which the bristle-like receptacle is extended 
beyond the involucre ; sometimes scarcely exceeding it in 
length, and sometimes being four or five times as long. 

The lanceolate form of this plant has been sometimes 
thought distinct from the broader form, but the general 
opinion is, that it is an extreme variety of the same species ; 
to this the name of Andrewsii is applied, in compliment 
to the gentleman by whom it was first discovered. 

The Sister Isle now claims, so far as the British Isles are 
concerned, sole parentage of this lovely, half-transparent 
species. There, amidst dripping rocks, it thrives with a 
degree of luxuriance which charms every one who has seen 
it creeping over their shelving ledges. It is said to have 

N 



178 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

been formerly found in Yorkshire. The same species is 
widely distributed in the warmer parts of the world. 

The variety and elegance of this plant make it a favourite 
species for cultivation. The conditions of success are, a 
close atmosphere, shade, moderate warmth, constant but 
not stagnant moisture, and a porous surface to which the 
roots may cling. 

Among the many names which have been applied to this 
plant, the following are the most likely to occur in English 
books : Trichomanes speciosum, Trichomanes brevisetum, Tri- 
chomanes alatum, and HymenopJiyllum alatum. 



Genus III. WOODSIA, R. Brown. 

THE Woodsias form a family group consisting of two di- 
minutive kinds, which, however, possess much interest 
among the British species on account of their extreme rarity. 
These Perns are furnished with indusia, and by their peculiar 
construction and position they may readily be known. The 
peculiarities consist in their being not placed as a cover to 
the sori, but attached underneath them ; when very young 
they indeed enclose them, but subsequently in each case 



Plate IV, 







WOODSIA. 179 

they split from above into narrow scale-like segments not 
easily distinguished, at least without optical assistance, from 
the hairs which occur with them on the fronds. In the full- 
grown state, the sori are consequently seated in the centre 
of a spreading tuft of hair-like scales, which are formed of 
the lacerated margins of the indusium the latter being 
attached to the frond at the point beneath the capsules. 
No other native Ferns possess a structure at all approaching 
to this. 

These Perns were formerly ranked with the Polypodies and 
AcrosticJmms, but when the structure of this race of plants 
became better understood, they'were very properly separated, 
and they now, in conjunction with some few foreign kinds, 
form a distinct family circle. The name Woodsia was given 
in compliment to a clever veteran English botanist, Joseph 
Woods, Esq., whose name has been recently before the 
public as the author of a very useful ' Tourist's Flora/ 

WOODSIA HYPERBOREA, R. Brown. The Blunt-leaved or 
Alpine Woodsia. (Plate IV. fig. 1.) 

This is a diminutive species, never exceeding a few inches 
in stature, and renewing its fronds annually in the spring, 
the older ones being destroyed by the frosts and cold of 
winter : when this influence is felt by the plants, the fronds 



180 HISTORY OF BRITISH TERNS. 

quickly lose their vitality,, and are cast off at the articulation 
or joint near the base of the stipes, which occurs in this 
family. The Alpine Woodsia, like its congener, grows in a 
tufted manner, sending up several fronds from the crown, 
from the base of which the dark-coloured wiry roots are 
protruded. In form these fronds are longish and compara- 
tively very narrow, almost linear, as it is termed ; and they 
are pinnately divided into several roundish triangular pinnae, 
which are shallowly lobed on the margin, and are usually 
set on alternately along the opposite sides of the stalk or 
rachis ; those towards the lower part are usually placed at a 
greater distance apart than those near the upper end. They 
are nearly smooth on the surface, and, in this respect, unlike 
those of the kindred species, which have a much more hairy 
appearance; small hair-like scales, in company with hairs, 
are, however, present in both species. 

The midvein of the pinnae is indistinct, and throws out 
venules into each lobe, these venules being more or less 
branched according to the size of the lobes. The sori are 
placed near the extremity of the venules, and are often 
abundantly produced, so as to become crowded on the 
pinnse. 

The Alpine "Woodsia is named W. alpina, by Mr. New- 



WOODSIA. 181 

man; and has formerly been called Acrostichum alpinum, 
Acrostickum hyperboreum, Polypodium liyperboreum, and 
Polypodium arvonicum. 

The two English Woodsias are in Great Britain found 
only in high mountain regions, where they grow from the 
crevices of the moistened rocks. They are both rare, though, 
from the inaccessible localities in which only they occur, 
they may really be more abundant than is generally sup- 
posed. Both also appear to be confined to the northern 
parts of our hemisphere. 

From their rarity rather than their beauty these form 
interesting pot-plants. They require to be kept in a cold 
shady frame, to be potted in very porous soil, and to be 
carefully guarded against drought or stagnant moisture. 

WOODSIA ILYENSIS, R. Brown. The Oblong Woodsia. 
(Plate III. fig. 2.) 

A deciduous species, dying down to the ground annually 
in winter, and reviving with the returning spring. Its very 
short stems form tufts, which, if not disturbed, and are 
situated under favourable circumstances, grow into large 
masses, speaking comparatively with its diminutive stature. 
The fronds average about four inches in height, and are less 
frequently found larger than smaller than this. Their form 



182 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS, 

is lanceolate, more or less broad, and in their mode of divi- 
sion they are pinnate, the pinnae usually set on nearly or 
quite opposite in pairs, and having an obtusely oblong out- 
line, with a deeply -lobed or pinnatifid margin. They are of 
a thick dull-looking texture, and are more or less clothed on 
both surfaces, but especially on the veins beneath, with 
minute bristle-like scales, and shining jointed hairs, among 
which the sori are almost concealed. The stipes is also 
scaly, and, as occurs in a whole group of these Woodsias, 
has a joint or articulation at a short distance from its base, 
at which point separation takes place if the fronds are left 
on to attain a good old age, the lower part remaining at- 
tached to the caudex, while the upper part falls away. 

The veining of the segments of the pinnse consists of a 
rather indistinct midvein, from which the ven tiles, either 
simple or branched, proceed towards the margin, near to 
which the sori are produced. 

There seems no reasonable doubt that the Fern which 
Linnaeus called AcrosticJium Uvense is that now under notice. 
It has also been called PoJ/ypodium Uvense. 



183 



THE BRITISH CLUB-MOSSES. 

Genus XIX. LYCOPODIUM, Lwnaw. 

THE Lycopodiums, commonly called Club-mosses, are moss- 
like plants, mostly of creeping or decumbent habit ; and 
their stems, which consist of annular or spiral vessels inter- 
mixed with cellular matter, are clothed with cellular leaves, 
so placed that they overlie each other like the tiling of a 
roof. The fructification is produced in the axils of the 
leaves, and is in most of the species confined to the apices 
of the branches, where it forms a cone-like head. 

The organs of reproduction at once distinguish the Club- 
mosses from all other plants. They consist of kidney- shaped 
spore-cases, one- to three-valved, and containing bodies 
of two distinct kinds. One kind consists of minute pow- 
dery matter, in the shape of smooth resinous grains, which, 
by reason of lateral pressure, acquire the form of irregular 
polygons. These bodies have been called antheridia by 
some botanists, and their granular contents have been con- 



184 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

sidered as pollen by some, and as abortive spores by others. 
The other kind of spore-case contains three or four roundish 
fleshy bodies, which are marked at the apex by a three- 
branched line, and are many times as large as the granular 
bodies which have been already mentioned. These larger 
bodies have been called spores or oophoridia, and by some 
observers anthers. 

The true explanation of these parts is a matter of doubt. 
All that is certainly known is, that the larger bodies do 
germinate, or at least vegetate, and according to a statement 
of Willdenow the smaller ones germinate also. , It seems 
probable that the suggestion made by Dr. Lindley is correct, 
namely, that the powder-like grains are true spores, while 
the large ones are buds or viviparous organs. This view is 
supported by the descriptions which have been given of the 
supposed germination of these larger bodies, in which a 
process quite analogous to the vegetation of a bud is clearly 
pointed out. 

The granular matter is produced by all the species of 
Lycopodmm, but the large fleshy bodies are found only in a 
few of the species. It has been usual to regard both sets 
of organs, when present, as axillary to the leaves or bracts, 
and so they may be considered for all practical purposes. 



LYCOPODITJAi. 185 

A different theoretical explanation has, however, been given 
by Muller, a German writer, who considers the oophoridiutn 
as the entire metamorphosed terminal bud of a main axis ; 
and he supports this opinion by the statement that in the 
early condition this oophoridium is opposite the spike in 
which the granular bodies are produced. The spike and 
the oophoridium are by him regarded as two metamorphosed 
branches into which a main axis has become divided, and it 
is only at a later period of growth that they both appear to 
belong to the same axis. The smaller granules, or antheridia, 
he regards as lateral buds, or twig buds, only to be dis- 
tinguished from the terminal bud which is developed into 
the oophoridium, by the circumstance that the latter is a 
principal branch, possibly capable of a more extensive de- 
velopment into branch and foliaceous organs, while the 
twig, which is developed into an antheridium, is but a small 
particle of such a main branch. 

These plants, like the Ferns, are most abundant in hot, 
humid, and especially insular, situations in the tropics, be- 
coming scarcer northwards, but often even in very northerly 
regions covering large tracts of land. Our native species, 
with one exception, have a boreal and alpine tendency, being 
found most abundantly on the high lands of the north, and 



186 HISTORY OP BRITISH PERNS. 

decreasing in quantity as they advance southwards. Many 
of the tropical Lycopodium* are extremely beautiful : some 
are of scandent habit, and many of them attain considerable 
size. 

Though of humble growth, and altogether unattractive 
in appearance, the Club-mosses are not without their use. 
More than one species is used in dying operations, and 
several have a medicinal reputation. The powdery matter 
called pollen, which is produced in considerable quantities 
by our common species, is highly imflammable, and is used 
in pyrotechny under the name of vegetable brimstone. 
Being of a drying and healing nature, it is also used to pre- 
vent excoriation in infants ; and in pharmacy is also used 
sometimes for coating pills, as it is with difficulty wetted. 
The common Club-moss is emetic, and the Fir Club-moss 
is a cathartic and a powerful irritant; the former is also 
used in the treatment of cutaneous disorders, and is a re- 
puted remedy for the plica polonica. 

The tiny species of Lycopods now known to botanists have 
been thought to be the direct representatives of the vast 
tree-like Lepidodendra met with in a fossil state, and which 
in former ages must have rivalled our coniferous trees. The 
evidence in support of this view has been questioned ; but 



LYCOPODIUM. 187 

there seems no good reason to doubt, at least, that there is 
a very close affinity between the two races; and, indeed, 
some of the most skilful investigators of this subject find an 
almost complete agreement between them. 

The British species of this order are all included in the 
genus LyQopodmm, the name of which comes from lycos, a 
wolf, and podos, a foot, and is given in allusion to the sup- 
posed resemblance of its forked fertile stems to the claw of 
some animal, as of the wolf. Hence one species, and that 
which probably suggested the name, has been called Wolf s- 
claw. 

LYCOPODIUM ALPINUM, Linnaus. Savin-leaved Club- 
moss. 

This kind of Club-moss gets its trivial name from the 
resemblance between its branches clothed with the closely- 
pressed leaves, and those of the Savin, Juniperus Sabina. 
It is a pretty little evergreen plant, forming thick wide- 
spreading patches of round, tough, creeping, sparingly leafy 
stems, bearing numerous other erect stems which are re- 
peatedly branched in a dichotomous manner, growing erect, 
from three to six inches high. The colour of the plant is 
a bright pleasant green. The smaller branches are set 
more or less closely with the small smooth sessile leaves, 



188 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

whose form is lance-shaped, ending in a point; they are of 
a thickish texture, and are rounded off at the back and 
hollowed out in front where they fit against the stem. On 
the dichotomous branches just mentioned the leaves are 
closely placed, the lower ones lying over the bases of those 
next above them, but they are arranged in four tolerably 
regular lines, so as to give a squarish form to their branches. 
The little fascicles of branches are for the most part level- 
topped, those which bear spikes of fructification being 
somewhat longer than the barren ones and twice dichoto- 
mous ; the fruit spikes, which exceed half an inch in length, 
are rather thicker than the branch. 

The fructifications consist of the little spikes just men- 
tioned, which terminate a portion of the branches, and are 
erect, close, cylindrical, of a yellowish-green colour, and 
sessile on the branches, that is, joined to the leafy portion 
below, without any intermediate stalk-like contracted part. 
The spike consists of a number of bracts closely packed 
together, each having in its axil a capsule containing nu- 
merous very minute pale yellowish spores. The bracts are 
ovate, dilated at the base, drawn out into a longish point 
at the apex, and having the margins toothed. The cap- 
sules themselves, seated quite at the base of the bracts and 



LYCOPODIUM. 189 

close to the axis of the spike, are roundish kidney- shaped, 
and of a yellow colour. The bracts become reflexed after 
the spores have been dispersed. The plants are firmly fixed 
to the soil, by means of tough strong wiry branched roots, 
produced at intervals along the prostrate stems. 

The head-quarters of this species is in elevated mountainous 
tracts. It occurs very abundantly in Scotland and "Wales ; 
frequently in the hills of the north of England ; and is less 
common in Ireland. It also occurs throughout the alpine 
districts of Europe and Northern Asia. 

The Savin-leaved Club -moss is a bitter plant, with a 
somewhat aromatic flavour, and possesses emetic properties ; 
it is, however, seldom applied to any use. Sir W. J. 
Hooker mentions having seen it used in Iceland as a dye 
for woollen cloths, to which it gives a pale and pleasant but 
not brilliant yellow. The process is simply that of boiling 
the cloth in water, along with a quantity of the Lycopodium, 
and some leaves of the Bog Whortleberry. 

LYCOPODIUM ANNOTINUM, Linnceus. Interrupted Club- 
moss. 

A very distinct plant, easily recognized by the inter- 
rupted leafing of its stems, the leaves being at intervals 
much diminished in size and less spreading in their direc- 



190 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

tion, showing the points where annual growths have com- 
menced and terminated. It is also known by its narrow 
leaves spreading out from the stem on all sides, and ar- 
ranged in five indistinct rows. It is a large-growing 
species, often a foot high, with irregularly branched stems, 
which, after they have produced fruit-spikes, or have reached 
an equivalent age, become depressed, rooting at intervals, and 
throw up another series of upright branches. Mr. Newman, 
in his account of these plants, states that the spike is 
usually on the sixth or seventh joint or annual growth of 
the branches ; and this appears to be pretty, generally the 
case, though the branches are by no means all fertile. The 
annual increase of the stems is well marked by the closer 
pressed and shorter leaves which occur at the upper part 
of each growth, and this is what gives the interrupted ap- 
pearance to the stems. The leaves, which do not decay for 
several years, are linear-lanceolate in form, and have their 
margins minutely serrulate, and their apex drawn out and 
terminating in a rigid point ; they are attached directly to 
the stems without stalks, and are arranged in an indistinctly 
spiral or somewhat five- ranked order. The lower leaves, 
that is to say, those remaining on the older portions of the 
stem, are more spreading than those on the younger 



LYCOPODIUM. 191 

growth, and indeed on the oldest portions often become 
somewhat deflexed; they have a yellowish-green colour, 
and are of a hard rigid texture; they have moreover a 
stout midrib, prominent at the back. 

The spike of fructification is in this species perfectly 
stalkless, being seated directly on the termination of the 
leafy branch. It is about an inch long, of an oblong form, 
and consists of closely overlapping bracts, of a roundish- 
ovate form, having a long narrow point and jagged mem- 
branous margins. In the axil of the bracts is produced a 
large reniform capsule, containing numerous minute pale 
yellowish spores. The bracts become reflexed when these 
spores have escaped from the burst capsule. 

This a rare species, confined to wild mountainous locali- 
ties, occurring in the Scottish Highlands, and formerly, if 
not now, plentiful on Glyder, in Caernarvonshire. It is 
not known to occur in England or Ireland, but is plenti- 
ful in the pine-forests of the north of Europe, and in some 
parts of North America. 

LYCOPODIUM CLAVATUM, Linnaeus. Common Club-moss. 
(Plate XX. fig. 6.) 

This sort of Club-moss is of procumbent habit, having 
vigorous creeping stems often many feet in length, much 



192 HISTOllY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

branched, and attached to the soil here and there by means 
of tough pale-coloured wiry-looking roots. The young 
branches, which are very thickly clothed with leaves, grow 
rather upwards at first, but soon all become prostrate, and 
cross and interlace, forming a close matted tuft, whence 
comes, in fact, the name it bears in Sweden Matte-grass, 
or mat-grass. 

These stems are densely clothed with small, narrow lan- 
ceolate, flattish leaves, which remain fresh through the 
winter; they are smooth on the margin, or very slightly 
toothed, and terminate in a long white filamentous point, 
which gives the branches a somewhat hoary appearance. 
The upright stalks supporting the spikes are bare of leaves, 
but have at intervals whorls of smaller bodies closely pressed 
to the stalk, and tipped with shorter but broader membra- 
nous chaffy processes; they are also of a pale yellowish- 
green colour. 

The spikes of fructification are usually over an inch in 
length, and are supported by a stalk of about twice their 
own length. They are commonly produced in pairs, though 
sometimes singly, and occasionally three together on the 
same stalk. These spikes are cylindrical, and supported 
on a short pedicel at the top of the common stalk ; they are 



LYCOPODIUM. 193 

erect, white in front, but afterwards become more or less 
curved. The spikes themselves consist of crowded trian- 
gular-ovate acuminate bracts of a pale yellow colour, and 
having membranous serrated margins; in their axils the 
spore-cases are produced, and these are subreniform, 
two-valved, and filled with innumerable sulphur-coloured 
powdery spores. The bracts become reflexed after the 
spore-cases have shed their contents. 

This is a common species, growing in moors and heathy 
places in mountainous and hilly tracts of country through- 
out England, Wales, and Scotland ; and frequent, though 
less abundant, in Ireland. 

The leafy stems of this species are used for dyeing pur- 
poses, as well as to fix colours in the stead of alum. The 
long slender stems, used under the name of Stages-horn 
Moss, are formed into pretty ornaments for the decoration 
of the houses of rustics, and for filling their fire-grates 
during summer. Linnseus relates that in Lapland the boys 
have their heads decorated with chaplets formed of it, 
which the twin spikes projecting on all sides have the 
effect of calling up the idea of groups of fauns and satyrs. 
Indeed, the long flexible stems are not badly adapted 
for various decorative purposes. 

o 



194 HISTORY OF BRITISH EERNS. 

LYCOPODIUM INUNDATUM, Unnaus. Marsh Club-moss. 
(Plate XX. fig. 4.) 

This is a diminutive and common plant, very frequent 
on moist heaths and commons in the southern parts of 
England, less common northwards, comparatively rare in 
Wales and Scotland, and not found in Ireland. It prefers 
to grow on spots from which the turf has been pared. 

It is of prostrate habit, with simple stems two or three 
inches long, growing close to the surface of the ground, to 
which they are firmly attached by a few short stout roots. 
They are thickly clothed with narrow linear-lanceolate 
leaves, which have an acute point, and are entire on the 
margin ; those on the barren horizontal stems being curved 
upwards. The plant extends itself at the point throughout 
the growing season, the other end meanwhile undergoing 
a process of decay, so that in winter, when the growth is 
arrested, the decay still going on, the living stem is mucli 
reduced, and a small portion only remains over to produce 
new foliage the following season. The direction of the older 
portions may often be traced by means of a black Hue, 
caused by the decayed matter left on the surface of the 
soil where the stem has perished. 

The spike of fructification, which is produced towards 



LYCOPODIUM. 195 

autumn, is seated at the top of an erect branch-like peduncle, 
clothed throughout with leaves of the same shape as those 
on the horizontal stems ; the peduncle and spike are nearly 
of equal thickness throughout, the spike about an inch 
long, the peduncle rather more. The spike is green, and 
is formed of narrow linear-lanceolate bracts, rather dilated 
at the base, and sometimes having one or two shallow teeth 
on each side. The spore-cases are in the axils of these 
bracts, and are nearly spherical, of a pale yellowish-green, 
containing numerous minute pale yellow sporules. 

LYCOPODIUM SELAGINOIDES, Linnaus. Prickly Club- 
moss. 

This interesting species has a slender, procumbent, often 
branched stem, the barren branches short and sinuous, the 
fertile ones ascending or erect, and from two to three inches 
high. They are clothed with lance-shaped leaves, of a deli- 
cate texture, jagged along the margins with spiny teeth ; 
those on the decumbent stems being shorter, as well as more 
distant and spreading, than those of the fertile branches. 

The inflorescence, as in the other species, is a terminal 
spike of about an inch in length, consisting of lance-shaped 
jagged-edged bracts, larger and more closely pressed than 
the leaves of the stem. These bracts produce from their 



196 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

axils two kinds of fructification. The lower bracts bear in 
their axils large three-celled spore-cases, containing three 
globular oophoridia, or four-celled cases containing four of 
these bodies. The upper bracts bear subreniform spore- 
cases, containing the minute pulverulent pollen-like sporules. 
This is the only native species which produces the two sepa- 
rate kinds of spore-cases. 

Though hardly to be considered a rare species, this is one 
of the less common ; it is found in the north of England, 
Wales, and Scotland, in which latter country it is pretty 
generally distributed. In Ireland it is more common. The 
localities which it prefers are wet boggy places by the side 
of mountain rills. 

LYCOPODIUM SELAGO, Lmnam. Pir Club-moss. (Plate 
XX. fig. 5.) 

The Fir Club -moss is one of our commoner kinds, and 
in its parts is the most massive of any. It is, moreover, 
usually of upright growth, the others being decumbent, 
though of this there is a variety or mountain form some- 
times met with, in which the stems are constantly prostrate. 
Indeed, in the commoner forms the upright habit, which is 
evidently natural to it, often gives way before the force of 
gravity, and in such cases the lower part of the stems is 



LYCOPODIUM. 197 

found to be somewhat recumbent, while the upper parts 
retain their upright position. The stems vary from three or 
four to six or eight inches high, and are branched two or 
three times in a two-forked manner ; they are stout, tough, 
rigid, nearly level-topped, and thickly clothed with imbri- 
cated leaves arranged in eight rows. These leaves are lance- 
shaped and acute, of a shining green, rigid and leathery in 
texture, and smooth on the margin ; in plants which have 
grown in exposed places they are shorter and more closely 
pressed to the stem ; while in plants developed in more 
confined and humid situations they are longer, less rigid, 
and more spreading. 

The fructification is in this species not borne in terminal 
spikes as in the other kinds, but is produced in the axils of 
the leaves along the upper branches of the stem. The spore- 
cases are rather large, sessile, kidney-shaped, two-valved, and 
filled with minute pale yellow sporules. 

Besides the ordinary sporules, the plant is furnished with 
other means of propagation in the shape of deciduous buds, 
produced for the most part in the axils of the leaves, about 
the apices of the branches. These buds separate spontane- 
ously, fall to the ground, and there vegetate, first producing 
roots, and then elongating into a leafy stem. They are 



198 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

formed by an altered leaf, which, becoming somewhat 
swollen on the outside, protrudes from its inner margin five 
smaller lanceolate leaves or teeth, the whole being elevated 
on a short hardened footstalk. Mr. Newman describes 
these changed leaves as becoming transformed into irregular 
six-cleft calyces or cups, the outermost lobe of the six being 
longer and larger than the rest, and of the pair on each side, 
one being generally incumbent on the other so as to nearly 
conceal it. Within this is a whorl of five parts representing 
a gemma, or bud; the three inner lobes of this series are 
large and prominent, and of an ovate oblong acute form, 
the two outer lobes are very small, scale-like, one closely 
appressed to the anterior, the other to the posterior surface 
of the bud. In the centre of the three inner lobes, in due 
time, appears a thickish oblong body, which is in reality the 
undeveloped stem, and eventually elongates, puts out small 
leaflets, and becomes a plant. 

These buds are capable of growth either while attached to 
their parent stem or when detached and in contact with the 
soil ; and they appear to be the chief means of propagation 
possessed by this species, for the statements which have 
been made respecting the germination of the sporules of the 
Fir Club-moss are open to much doubt. Probably it was 



LYCOPODIUM. 199 

these buds which were caused to germinate. The buds 
themselves offer much analogy to the larger spores or oopho- 
ridia produced by some other species, and afford an addi- 
tional argument in support of the view which regards these 
oophoridia as gemmse, or buds. 

There is no doubt this plant possesses some medicinal 
properties, though it is not now used in regular practice. 
It is powerfully irritant, and is used by country people, in 
the form of an ointment, as a counter-irritant in parts near 
the eye, as a remedy for diseases of that organ ; it appears 
to be also sometimes employed as an emetic and cathartic, 
but not without danger. A decoction is, on the authority 
of Linnseus, used in Sweden to destroy vermin on cattle. 
It is also employed for dyeing purposes, and to fix the colour 
of woollen cloths. 



The Lycopodiums are not frequently seen in cultivation, but 
they nevertheless, equally with the Ferns, would become a 
source of much interest if brought constantly under the eye 
in a living state ; and in an equal degree the study of them 
in this condition the watching of their progress and deve- 



200 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

lopment day by day would contribute to the thorough 
understanding of them and their differences. 

We venture to hope, therefore, that some of our readers 
may be induced to fit up a Wardian case for the Club- 
mosses ; and with a view to assist them in so doing we offer 
a few suggestions and hints as to their cultivation. 

A small Wardian case, a northern aspect, a few blocks 
of sandstone, and some peat soil, are the materials that 
would be required. 

No contrivance could be better adapted to their wants 
than a Wardian case, which, while it would protect them 
from the changes of temperature incidental to a lowland 
climate, would secure to them a calm and moist atmosphere, 
which they all prefer. The interior should be fitted up with 
an artificial mound of " rock-work," made of lumps of soft 
sandstone, in the disposal of which there will be an oppor- 
tunity for the display of much taste. At the base of the 
" rock- work " there should be a little pond of water, in 
which Isoetes and Pilularia might be cultivated. A por- 
tion of the peaty soil should be introduced into the inter- 
stices of the rock-work, and about its base on the margins 
of the water. In the former situations the smaller and 
alpine species, such as alpinum, annotinum, and selagi- 



LYCOPODIUM. 201 

noides, should be planted ; while on the lower and damper 
parts should be placed such as inundation and clavatum. 

The soil employed should be peat earth intermediate in 
texture between the spongy and the unctuous kinds ; that 
used among the rock-work may have in addition a portion 
of the sandstone pounded and intermixed with it. That used 
for inundatum in the lower part of the case will not require 
this intermixture, and, in fact, will be the better as it ap- 
proaches the unctuous texture just referred to, which the 
presence of a good supply of water will soon give to it. 

All parts of the soil should be kept rather moist than 
otherwise, by the application of fresh water occasionally ; 
but as the confinement of the atmosphere in the damp 
state, in a close case, might tend to produce decay in some 
parts of the vegetable tissues, the little door or hinged sash 
may from time to time be left open for a few hours, in 
order that the stagnant moisture may be carried off, when 
a fresh supply will be doubly grateful to the plants. 

It must be recollected, that the soil will be exposed to 
very slight drying influences, and can, therefore, never re- 
quire to be very copiously supplied at any one time ; the 
proper course being, rather to ventilate frequently, say 
once a week, in order to carry off the accumulated damp- 



202 HISTORY OP BRITISH FERNS. 

ness, and then by a moderate fresh supply to produce a 
continued change of the watery element. For the same 
reason, and to prevent the souring of the soil, which always 
takes place more or less when it is in contact with stagnant 
water, an outlet at the bottom of the case should be care- 
fully provided, by which all the free water at least, which 
drains through after the soil has been irrigated, may be 
removed as it accumulates. 

As to aspect, the northern is decidedly the best, princi- 
pally for the reason, that in such a situation the sun has 
less influence on the temperature of the interior of the 
case ; and extremes of confined heat would be anything but 
favourable to these plants. 

The appearance of the case would, no doubt, be improved 
by covering the soil entirely with living green Sphagnum 
moss, which, if neatly packed on the surface with the tops 
of its stems uppermost, would continue to grow and retain 
its verdure. Most of the species of Club-moss would prefer 
to grow amongst the Sphagnum, which, as it made fresh 
growth, should, to prevent its being drawn up and smother- 
ing the plants, be neatly clipped down occasionally with a 
pair of scissors. 

The interest of such a collection, so far as their appear- 



LYCOPODIUM. 203 

ance is concerned, would depend of course upon the taste 
with which the rock-work was designed and executed, and 
the plants distributed about it ; but whatever the result as 
a matter of taste, the study of the living plant might be 
prosecuted without inconvenience, and which could never 
happen in their wild localities all the species might be 
brought under the eye at one time, for the purpose of con- 
trasting them, and studying their differences. 



204 



THE BRITISH PEPPERWORTS. 

THE group of plants to which the name of Pepperworts has 
been given, is technically called Marsileac&z, and contains 
but a few genera, these being of very curious structure. It 
has only two representatives in the British flora. These two 
plants belong to different genera, and are both submerged 
aquatic plants of small size, agreeing in having grassy or 
quill-like foliage, but differing materially in habit, the one 
being a creeping grower and the other tufted; the fruc- 
tification also presenting some material differences. Isoetes 
is sometimes classed with the Club -mosses instead of the 
Pepperworts. 

Genus XX. ISOETES. 

Isoetes, which takes its scientific name from the Greek 
words isos, equal, and etos, the year, from its retaining its 
fronds throughout the year, is commonly called Quillwort. 
The genus differs from Pilularia, its nearest ally, and with 
which it is associated in the order of Pepperworts, in having 



ISOETES. 205 

its spore-cases enveloped by the dilated bases of its hollow 
leaves ; some of the spore-cases containing large, and some 
much smaller pollen-like sporules. It may also be known 
by its hollow leaves being composed of four rows of elon- 
gated cells, which give it a bluntly quadrangular section; 
but this peculiar construction of the stems is not always 
to be observed, except in fresh specimens, the pressure to 
which they are subjected in the process of drying breaking 
up the partitions of the cells, so that the stem appears to 
be composed of one series of large elongated cells. There 
is but one species, the I. lacustris, a stemless quill-leaved 
submerged plant, which gives the appearance of a green 
turf to the bottom of the water where it occurs. 

ISOETES LACUSTRIS, Linnaeus. The European Quillwort, 
or Merlin's Grass. (Plate XIX. fig. 1.) 

This is a very curious plant, growing at the bottom of 
our mountain lakes, and having, as has been remarked, 
the appearance of a submerged grass, so that the unexpe- 
rienced eye would probably pass it by unnoticed. It has a 
fleshy tuber, of a nearly globular form, white, and of compact 
texture internally, but spongy and of a dark brown colour 
externally. In the centre is a small nearly pellucid part, 
which appears to be the growing point, since it is from this 



206 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

point that the leaves appear to have their origin. Some 
botanists have held the opinion that it continues to die at 
the circumference while it grows in the interior, and the 
appearances presented by the exterior and interior of the 
tuber seem rather to confirm this view. Prom these tubers 
are produced the long semipellucid tubular roots, which are 
either simple or forked near their extremity, and naturally 
strike downwards almost perpendicularly. Mr. Newman 
describes the taste of the tubers as being earthy, but not 
otherwise remarkable. 

The leaves spring from the crown of the tuber, and grow 
erect to the height of four or six inches, or more. They 
are persistent, and of an olive-green colour, and their gene- 
ral form is awl-shaped. The basal portion is dilated and 
furnished with membranous margins; above this dilated 
base they are nearly round, or, more exactly, bluntly qua- 
drangular, being formed of four parallel hollow tubes, which 
tubes are subdivided at irregular distances by transverse 
partitions : towards the apex they taper off and terminate 
in a sharp point. The transverse partitions above men- 
tioned, being visible through the texture of the leaf, give 
it a jointed appearance. Owing to their brittleness, they 
not unfrequently break off at one of these joint-like points, 



ISOETES. 207 

their basal parts and the decaying remains of the older 
leaves continuing to encircle the base of the young vigorous 
leaves springing from the centre. 

The fructification is contained within the dilated bases of 
the leaves, and consists of roundish, hard, membranous spore- 
cases. Some of these spore-cases contain roundish bodies 
or spores, marked with a triangular suture on the top, and 
a transverse annular one in addition ; these spores separate 
at the sutures into three triangular valves, exposing an 
interior subglobose semi-gelatinous substance; externally 
they are opake, whitish, and rough with minute prominent 
points. The other set of spore-cases usually said to occur 
at the base of the inner leaves, while the former occupy the 
bases of the outer ones, but, according to Mr. Newman, not 
following any law in their relative position contain minute 
angular sporules, which are very numerous, and of a pale 
yellow colour. These different kinds of spores have been 
sometimes called anthers and ovules, as have the similar 
bodies in the Club-mosses ; but it is rather to be considered 
that the smaller grains are the imperfect representatives of 
the larger ones, since as yet we possess no good evidence of 
the sexuality of this race of plants. 

Two distinct-looking forms of the Quillwort have been 



208 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

observed, the one having thicker, shorter, and more spreading 
leaves than the other ; in the latter they are more slender and 
erect. These have been thought distinct varieties or even 
distinct species by some botanists, but are more probably 
mere conditions of the plants brought about by external cir- 
cumstances. Several theories have been propounded as ex- 
planatory of the way in which this occurs. Sir J. E. Smith 
says, the taller, more slender variety may, perhaps, be caused 
by those sudden risings of the waters so frequent in moun- 
tainous countries, which will account for all its peculiar 
characters. Mr. Wilson believes the solitary plants with 
short spreading leaves to be the first full development after 
the seedling state, and before any lateral extension of the 
rhizome has taken place ; and argues, that when the plants 
become crowded, either by lateral increase or offsets, or by a 
multitude of individuals in close contact, the fronds can only 
grow erect. Mr. Newman thinks, that when the seeds arrive 
at maturity, the leaf in whose base the spore-case is situated 
decays and becomes torn or broken off, allowing free egress 
to some of the spores, which become dispersed, and produce 
the isolated dwarf spreading plants. Others and by far the 
larger number of the spores do not become thus disengaged, 
and are compelled to germinate in the capsule, throwing up 



ISOETES. 209 

most dense tufts of slender leaves, Without having made 
any critical observations on this point, we decidedly prefer 
Mr. Newman's explanation, which, as would be at once re- 
cognized by horticulturists, is quite sufficient to account for 
the observed differences in habit among the plants. 

It is said that fish feed on the Isoetes ; and that, when 
brought within the reach of cattle, it is greedily eaten by 
them, and proves fattening. 

The cultivation of the Quillwort presents few difficulties ; 
in fact, water and a little soil are the only requisites. In 
such a miniature lake as has been recommended to be in- 
troduced in a Wardian case fitted up for Club-mosses, this 
plant and the Pilularia might be made to thrive ; but the 
most interesting way in which it could be grown would be 
in an aquatic plant-case, with transparent sides, or in any 
substitute for such a structure, such as a glass jar of suffi- 
cient depth. Planted in this way, its growth could be 
watched, and many interesting points of its economy could 
not fail to reward a careful observer. 

The aquatic plant-case, like the Wardian case, admits of 
much variety of detail. The most useful form is probably 
that of a rectangular glass cistern of the requisite size, held 
together by a light metal frame, and closed in by a glass lid. 



210 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

This is to be supported in the usual way on a mahogany or 
other stand. On the bottom, or projecting from the sides, 
proportionate-sized masses of coral or other rocks should be 
introduced, among which a little soil introduced would serve 
to fix and nourish the plants ; and these being planted, and 
the case supplied with water, might, though in their proper 
element, be examined without difficulty, and at all times. 

Such a case might be placed in the inside of any con- 
venient window, provided it were not too much exposed 
to direct sun; for if placed where the sun would have 
much influence on the temperature of the water, the plants 
would probably suffer. Indeed, the best aspect would be 
the north ; and in that case, by carrying a ledge of rock just 
above the water surface, a situation would be provided 
which would of all others suit the beautiful Bristle Fern and 
the Eilmy Eerns (Trickomane* and Hymenopliyllurti) . Some 
of the very small kinds of fish and the small aquatic mol- 
lusks might be introduced with advantage, and they would 
impart something like animation to the water. 

A miniature Aquarium of this kind, planted with the Pal- 
lisneria and other aquatics, and the TricJiomanes and other 
Perns, and stocked with miniature fish, is no ideal thing, 
but has been already constructed, and proves to be of the 



PILULARIA. 211 

deepest interest to those who are truly observers of nature. 
The merit of the adaptation is entirely due to Mr. Waring- 
ton, of the Apothecaries' Hall. 



Genus XXI. PILULABIA, Linnaus. 

OF this genus, there is one British species, Pilularia globu- 
lifera, the Pillwort, or Pepper-grass, a creeping-stemmed 
species, with filiform grass-like leaves, growing in clusters 
at intervals along the thread-like stems, and bearing the 
almost sessile fructification at their base. The parts of 
fructification differ considerably in position from those of 
the allied genus Isoetes, in which the spore-cases are en- 
veloped in the thickened bases of the leaves, those of the 
Pilularia being quite free, and attached directly to the 
stem, though seated at the base of a small tuft of leaves. 
They also differ in structure, the fructification of Isoetes con- 
sisting of two different kinds of bodies, namely granular and 
pulverulent bodies, occupying separate spore-cases ; while in 
Pilularia the two kinds are produced within each spore-case, 
the larger bodies occupying the lower, and the smaller ones 
the upper parts. 



212 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

The name comes from pilula, signifying a little pill, the 
spore-cases having a nearly globular form. 

PILULARIA GLOBULIFERA, Linncem. The Pillwort, or 
Pepper-grass. (Plate XYII. fig. 2.) 

Pepper-grass is a small creeping plant with grassy leaves, 
growing usually in the shallow margins of lakes and pools, 
where it is occasionally overflowed ; but sometimes occurring 
entirely submerged. The stem, or caudex, is thread-like, 
composed of several longitudinal rows of hollow cells, rough 
externally on the younger portions with hair-like scales, but 
otherwise smooth, occasionally branched, and producing on 
the lower side at intervals of about half an inch, less or 
more, small tufts of fibrous roots, which are slender, simple 
or slightly branched, hollow, being divided longitudinally, 
and descending almost perpendicularly into the soil in which 
they become fixed. On the upper part of the stem, opposite 
the tufts of roots, occur tufts of about a similar number of 
erect leaves, which are curled up in the incipient state, like 
those of a Pern, but on unrolling assume the erect position. 

These leaves are bristle- shaped, and of a bright green, 
smooth externally, hollow within, but unlike those of Isoetes, 
which are composed of four parallel lines of cells, the leaves 
of the Pillwort are divided longitudinally into various cells, 



PILULAEIA. 213 

separated by partitions radiating from the centre ; they are 
from one to four inches long. 

The fructifications consist of small globular spore-cases, 
attached by a very short stalk to the stem at the points 
whence the leaves and roots proceed, being in fact seated at 
the base, or in the axils of the leaves. They are densely 
covered externally with pale brown jointed hairs, and are 
about the size of a small pea or pepper-corn. These spore- 
cases are typically four-celled,, and when quite mature, open 
at the apex, and divide into quarters, the four parts re- 
maining attached to the footstalk by their base. The spores 
are attached to the interior of these valves along their centre, 
forming four lines, the lower part of the spore-case being 
occupied by the large, and the upper part by the small 
powdery bodies already mentioned; the former are of a 
greyish colour, and have a roundish-oblong form, with a con- 
traction in the middle, and a terminal nipple-like point, the 
latter consist of oblong pale yellow bodies filled with a 
powdery matter resembling pollen; both are contained in 
transparent gelatinous bags. 

The larger spores have been regarded as pistils, and the 
smaller ones as anthers, by those who have maintained the 
sexuality of these plants ; but there is no evidence whatever 



HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

to support the application of such names to the parts, at 
least in their ordinary signification. It seems more pro- 
bable that the larger bodies are the perfect spores, while the 
smaller ones are merely abortive spores ; at least this is the 
most reasonable explanation which has been offered. There 
is, indeed, no doubt of the larger bodies being spores, since 
they have been caused to germinate by different persons, 
and a very detailed record of some experiments and observa- 
tions on this subject has been given by Mr. Valentine. 

According to Mr. Valentine's observations, the first ex- 
ternal sign of germination is either the appearance of four 
cells projecting through the apex of the nipple-like point of 
the spore, or a gradual swelling of that part, in which case 
the enlarging cellular mass distends the conical point, and 
at length appears externally with four of its cells projecting 
beyond the general mass, and compressed into a quadran- 
gular form. Soon after the exposure of the entire germ, 
little rootlets shoot out from one side ; they are simply ar- 
ticulated tubes, or elongated cells applied end to end. The 
germ now gradually points in two places, which points gra- 
dually lengthen, and each on dissection is found to consist 
of a closed sheath, one containing a leaf, the other a root. 
The young leaf, when rather longer than the spore, bursts 



PILTJLAEIA. 215 

through its sheath, and the root protrudes before it is as 
long as the spore. After this first leaf has grown to about 
the length of a couple of lines,- another issues from the 
germ close to the former, and then a bud begins to be de- 
veloped from some indefinite part of the germ, but, like the 
leaves and root, from within the sheath. Sometimes this 
bud appears immediately after the first leaf, and without the 
production of a second. The bud is the rudimentary stem, 
the first growth from it being a leaf exhibiting, though 
slightly, evidence of gyration, and this is followed by a root 
furnished with its own sheath, 

It is one of the doctrines of botanists, that in what are 
called Acrogenous plants a group including Mosses, Club- 
mosses, Scale-mosses, Horsetails, and Perns germination 
takes place at no fixed point, but from any part of the 
surface of the spores; indeed this is one of the leading dif- 
ferences between what are called spores, and the reproduc- 
tive organs of flowering plants, called seeds. But Mr. 
Valentine maintains, that it is incorrect to say this of the 
germination of Pilularia, for he is quite certain that in this 
instance germination invariably takes place at a fixed 
spot, which may be pointed out before germination has com- 
menced. It is at a part of the spore, indicated by three ra- 



216 HISTORY OP BRITISH FERNS. 

diating lines, which appear to have been produced by the 
pressure of the three other spores that originally helped to 
constitute the quaternary union. The spores of some of 
the other tribes being apparently developed in similar unions, 
it is probable that similar lines, indicating a mode of 
opening by valves, also exist on them, and this is certainly 
the case in some instances, as in Isoetes, Lycopodium, and 
Osmunda ; and in those cases in which such a structure is 
not visible, it is probably owing to a thickening of the mem- 
brane, or a deposition of opake matter on its surface, as in 
Pilularia, in the mature spores of which they can only be 
discovered by dissection, and in the abortive ones they can- 
not be discovered at all after the earlier stages of growth. 
It, however, does appear that in these plants, after the pro- 
trusion of the germ, it is immaterial from what part of that 
body the first leaves, root, or stem shall arise. 

The Pillwort is widely distributed throughout the United 
Kingdom, but is apparently more abundant in England and 
Wales, than in Scotland and Ireland. It usually grows on 
the margins of lakes or pools, where it is covered by the 
water in winter, and more or less exposed during the sum- 
mer; but it is also sometimes, though rarely, met with 
entirely submerged. 



217 



THE BRITISH HORSETAILS. 

THIS race of plants bears an aspect altogether different from 
that of the groups in whose company they are placed in 
books, and indeed they have no very obvious affinity to any 
existing order of plants. In their mode of growth they 
have a certain resemblance to a small group of plants known 
by the name of Ephedra, and belonging to the order Gneta- 
cecEj and also to another limited set called Casuarina ; but 
this resemblance is confined to their general aspect, and is 
in great measure owing to the peculiar jointing of the stems 
and branches. With Perns and Club-mosses they have 
little in common, though so frequently associated with them 
in books. Their most direct relationship is probably with 
a small group called Liverworts (Marchantiac&z) ; and they 
have also some analogy with the aquatic group, Characece. 

The Horsetails are distinguished from other plants by the 
following characteristics. They are leafless, branching plants, 
with fistular jointed stems, separable at the joints, where 
they are solid, and at these points surrounded by membranous 



218 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

toothed sheaths : each joint in fact terminates above in one 
of these sheaths, into which the base of the next joint fits. 
The sheaths seem to represent abortive leaves. The fruc- 
tification consists of terminal cone-like heads, made up of 
peltate, usually hexagonal scales, to the lower face of which 
the spore-cases are attached in a series around the margin. 

The stems consist chiefly of cellular matter, but towards 
the circumference there is a layer of woody fibre, from 
which a series of plates of a similar nature project towards 
the centre. The centre, as already mentioned, presents a 
hollow cavity ; and between the outer and inner cuticle of 
the cylinder-like stem, occur one or more circles of hollow 
tubes, or air-cavities, differing in size and position, and in 
fact affording, by their comparative size, number, and ar- 
rangement, excellent auxiliary marks for the recognition of 
the species. Around these cavities, especially towards the 
exterior surface of the stem, occur numerous spiral vessels of 
small size. 

The cuticle abounds in siliceous particles secreted in the 
form of more or less prominent little warts, which impart to 
the surface a greater or less degree of roughness in proportion 
to their prominence. In some species this deposit of siliceous 
matter is so great, that it is said, the whole of the vegetable 



HORSETAILS. 219 

substance may be destroyed by maceration, the form of the 
plant being preserved entire in the flinty coating. It has 
been found that the ashes contain half their weight of silica. 
Some very interesting observations of Dr. Brewster, on the 
microscopic structure of this siliceous coating in K hyemale, 
first published by Dr. Greville, we may quote. 

" On subjecting a portion of the cuticle to the analysis of 
polarized light under a high magnifying power/' writes Dr. 
Greville, " Dr. Brewster detected a beautiful arrangement 
of the siliceous particles, which are distributed in two lines 
parallel to the axis of the stem, and extending over the 
whole surface. The greater number of the particles form 
simple straight lines, but the rest are grouped into oval 
forms, connected together like the jewels of a necklace by a 
chain of particles forming a sort of curvilinear quadrangle ; 
these rows of oval combinations being arranged in pairs. 
Many of those particles which form the straight lines, do 
not exceed the five-hundredth part of an inch in diameter. 
Dr. Brewster also observed the remarkable fact, that each 
particle has a regular axis of double refraction. In the straw 
and chaff of wheat, barley, oats, and rye, he noticed analo- 
gous phenomena, but the particles were arranged in a dif- 
ferent manner and displayed figures of singular beauty. 



220 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS, 

Prom these data Dr. Brewster concludes that the crystalline 
portions of silex and other earths which are found in vege- 
table films are not foreign substances of accidental occur- 
rence, but are integral parts of the plant itself, and probably 
perform some important function in the processes of vege- 
table life." 

Numerous stomates exist in the hollows of the fluted sur- 
face of the stems, the depressed part of each channel having 
two longitudinal series of these minute openings. 

Beyond their employment in the arts, the Equisetums are 
of little importance in an economical point of view. They 
are useless as fodder, and exploded as physic, though they 
have had some reputed astringent virtues. The underground 
stems, however, contain in winter, when the plants are in- 
active, a considerable quantity of starch, and they may be 
occasionally eaten by animals. In the cells of these under- 
ground stems, during the month of October, the particles of 
starch may be seen in active motion, passing up one side and 
down the other, as is observed in the stems of Cham. Dr. 
Lindley mentions having often noticed this phenomenon in 
the stems of the great Water Horsetail. 

The order of Horsetails consists of the one genus Equise- 
tum, of which nine species are recognized as British. 



221 



Genus XXII. EQUISETUM, Linnaus. 

THE jointed tubular stems, and terminal cones of fructifica- 
tion, are marks by which the Eguisetums may always be 
readily distinguished from all other plants. The species are, 
however, not so easily recognized among themselves, owing 
to the great sameness which occurs among certain groups of 
them. The chief features relied on for their discrimination, 
are the similarity or otherwise of the fertile and barren stems, 
the number of ridges or striae which occur on the exterior 
surface of these sterns, and the structure of the sheaths 
which surround the joints. By means of the peculiarities 
which these parts present, the species may be certainly iden- 
tified, and after a little experience has been had, several of 
them may be at once known by means of those jprima facie 
appearances, which it is probable will become associated 
with the plants, in the mind of the attentive student. One 
peculiarity of the Equisetums is, that they have no leaves, 
these organs being represented by the tubular sheaths which 
are produced at every joint. 

The name Equisetum is compounded from equus, a horse, 
and seta, a hair or bristle ; whence comes the English name 



222 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

of Horsetail, a not inapt comparison with the barren fronds 
of some of the species. 

EQUISETUM ARVENSE, Linncsus. The Corn-field Horsetail. 

This is the most common of the species, and in many 
places is an injurious weed, very difficult to eradicate. It 
occurs, here and there, almost everywhere in fields and 
waste places, especially where the soil is inclined to be 
sandy, and more abundant in moist than in dry places. 
It has long, creeping, underground stems, which are a good 
deal branched, and are cylindrical and jointed in the same 
way as the stems which rise above ground. At the joints 
they throw out whorls of tough, branching, fibrous roots. 
The aerial stems are of two kinds, the one simple and 
bearing the fructification only, the other branched and per- 
fectly barren. 

The fertile stems are quite without branches, and grow 
up early in spring, arriving at maturity and perishing long 
before the barren ones have completed their growth. They 
reach maturity in April and May. The stems vary, ac- 
cording to the locality where they grow, from three to eight 
or ten inches in height. They are hollow, succulent when 
fresh, and of a light brown colour, nearly smooth, and ap- 
parently without the siliceous coating common to the stems 



EQUISETUM. 223 

of this race of plants. They are divided at intervals into 
joints of variable length, the number of joints being also 
variable, from six on stems of about four inches in length, 
to eight on those which measure eight inches, though some- 
times specimens of equal length have but five or six joints. 
From this cause they are much more distant on some stems 
than on others ; a space measuring three-quarters of an 
inch being sometimes interposed between the top of one 
sheath and the base of the next above it. On the other 
hand, they are sometimes so close as nearly to touch ; but 
we have seen no instance in which the base of a sheath is 
covered by the sheath below it, except at the very lowest 
part of the stem, where they become much reduced in size, 
and are sometimes crowded. It is usual for each succeeding 
joint upwards to be somewhat more distant than the one 
beneath it. The sheaths are large and loose, widening up- 
wards ; they are pale-coloured, somewhat yellowish at the 
base, and are divided above into about ten dark brown teeth, 
which often adhere together in twos and threes. The teeth 
are very narrowly lance-shaped and sharp-pointed, and are 
the terminations of the ribs, about ten in number, by which 
the sheaths are marked. 

These stems are terminated by cone-like heads, bearing 



224 HISTOIIY or BRITISH TEENS. 

the spore-cases, attached to peltate scales, arranged in 
crowded whorls, the cones being rather more than an inch 
long, tapering somewhat above and below, and terminating 
in a blunt point. Below this is a bare portion of the stem, 
seldom less than an inch in length in fully developed speci- 
mens, but sometimes measuring as much as two inches. 
The peltate scales are arranged in whorls around the axis of 
the cone, as is the case generally in this family. The scales 
in one of these cones, according to Mr. Newman's computa- 
tion, vary in number from one hundred to two hundred and 
fifty. At a right angle with their margin are ranged the 
spore-cases, four to seven in number, oblong, membranous, 
parallel, white cells, bursting finally into two longitudinal 
valves, and discharging an abundance of very minute glo- 
bular spores, of a beautiful blue-green colour. 

The barren stems are either erect or decumbent in their 
mode of growth, and are from one to two feet or more in 
height; they are often branched from the bottom to the 
top, but sometimes only the central and upper parts are 
branched. They spring up after the fertile stems have 
withered, and are of a pale green colour ; at first crowded 
with short appressed branches, which, by degrees, become 
elongated, and assume a spreading or somewhat drooping 



EQUISETUM. 225 

position, sometimes becoming again branched. The main 
stem has from ten to sixteen distinct shallow furrows, with 
corresponding ridges, and is, as well as the branches, studded 
over with minute siliceous warty particles. The sheaths, 
which fit somewhat closely to the stem, are furrowed like it, 
and terminate in an equal number of acute wedge-shaped 
dark-coloured teeth, which are often margined by a narrow 
brown membrane. Immediately below these sheaths spring 
out, from other short sheaths with obtuse brown segments, the 
whorls of branches, which are of variable number and length; 
they are four-ribbed, and their sheaths are four-toothed, the 
teeth being long and acute, of one colour, with a single rib 
extending to the extreme point of each tooth. The branches 
are four-angled. 

The section of the stem often affords a good mark of recog- 
nition among the species of Equisetum. In that of E. arvense 
it is seen that the interior cavity occupies only about one- 
third of the diameter. The exterior surface is varied by 
about a dozen blunt ridges, having corresponding shallow 
depressions ; within this, occupying about the centre of the 
ring, and alternating with the ridges, are a series of large 
roundish-oblong or obovate cavities, the narrow end of which 
is turned inwards ; alternating again with them, and conse- 

Q 



226 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

quently opposite to the external ridges, occurs an annular 
series of small circular cavities, which are placed near the 
inner surface of the tube. 

This plant is not, as far as we are aware, applied to any 
use ; and the harshness of its stems renders it by no means 
agreeable to cattle, although it often occurs abundantly 
among their pasturage ; and in cultivated ground becomes 
a troublesome weed. 

EQUISETUM HYEMALE, Linnaus. The Great Bough 
Horsetail. (Plate XX. fig. 1.) 

The underground stems of this species of Horsetail are 
branched, and creeping to a considerable extent ; they are 
black, and furnished with whorls of branched, black, fibrous 
roots. The aerial stems are in this species all alike in 
structure, those which bear fructification differing in no 
other particular from those which do not. They grow up- 
right, and are scarcely ever branched : when this does occur 
a solitary branch is produced, and this protrudes from below 
the base of one of the sheaths of the stem. Their colour is 
a deep glaucous green. 

These stems, which grow from two to three feet high, are 
cylindrical, tapering off at the apex, and marked on the 
thicker parts with from fourteen to twenty ridges, formed 



EQUISETUM. 227 

of a double row of elevated points. Their surface is very 
rough from the presence of these points, which consist of a 
coating of crystallized siliceous particles. In this species 
the sheaths fit closely around the stems, so that they are 
nearly cylindrical ; they are marked by ridges of the same 
number as those on the stem, but less prominent, and they 
terminate in a series of teeth equal in number to the ridges, 
the teeth being black, membranous, and bristle-shaped, soon 
falling off, and leaving the margin crenated. The sheath 
immediately below the cone of fructification has, however, 
its teeth persistent, and it is somewhat funnel-shaped. The 
sheaths are at first pale green with a black margin ; from 
this they change to be entirely black ; and finally they be- 
come whitish in the middle, leaving a narrow ring of black 
at the base and margin. 

In this species a section of the stem shows on the exterior 
a series of distinct ridges, formed of twin projections, and 
varying in number, as has been already explained ; opposite 
to the furrows, between them, and occupying about the cen- 
tre of the solid cylinder, is a ring of moderate-sized cavities. 
The central cavity is comparatively large. 

The cones of fructification are comparatively small, and 
are seated on the apices of a number of the stems ; they are 



228 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

at first ovate and apiculate, subsequently becoming elliptical ; 
when young sessile in the sheath, but afterwards acquiring 
a short footstalk. They are dark-coloured, consisting of 
about forty to fifty scales, and abounding in light-coloured 
powdery spores. Each of the scales is impressed with two 
or three vertical lines. 

This plant is found naturally growing in boggy shady 
places, and is much more abundant northwards than south- 
wards, where it is rarely met with. Though distributed 
sparingly over the United Kingdom, its occurrence is strictly 
local. 

The stems of this Equisetum are now and have been long 
employed in the arts as a material for polishing, the im- 
ported stems being known under the names of Dutch Eush 
and Shave-grass. They are obtained from Holland, where 
this species is planted to support the embankments, which 
it does by means of its branching underground stems. It 
has been suggested that our own sandy sea-coasts might be 
profitably planted with it. 

The property which gains for it its commercial value is 
due to the presence of a very hard coating of silex, which is 
deposited in the form of little crystals, rendering the surface 
rough like a rasp or file, and hence not only woods, but 



EQUISETUM. 229 

metals and stones may be polished by it. This siliceous 
coating is so entire, and of such density, that it is stated the 
whole of the vegetable matter may be removed by macera- 
tion, or, according to others, by burning, without destroy- 
ing the form of the plant. The minute crystals of silex, of 
which the flinty coating consists, are arranged with a degree 
of regularity which, under a microscope, has a very beauti- 
ful appearance ; they form a series of longitudinal elevated 
points, and in the furrows between them are cup-shaped 
depressions, at the bottom of each of which is placed a 
stomate or pore. 

All the species of Equisetum have a flinty coating to their 
stems, and may be, and are, more or less employed in polish- 
ing ; but the stems of the E. Jiyemale are much preferable 
to those of the other kinds, in consequence of their rougher 
and more hardened surface. 

EQUISETUM LIMOSUM, Linnaeus. The Water Horsetail, 
or Smooth Naked Horsetail. 

This is a common species and generally distributed, 
occurring principally in pools, ditches, and marshy places, 
though occasionally in running streams. It is rather a 
tall-growing plant, the stems rising from two to three feet 
or more in height, springing from the joints of the dark 



230 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

brown underground stems, which also produce whorls of 
black fibrous roots. 

The stems are, though firmly ribbed, very smooth to the 
touch, their furrows being very shallow ; their smoothness 
no doubt arising from the presence of a very slight coating 
of the siliceous particles, which, when more abundant, give 
their peculiar harshness to some of the species ; probably, 
also, the particles themselves are in this species much 
finer and less prominent. Sometimes the stems are quite 
unbranched ; sometimes furnished with irregular whorls of 
branches along all their central portion ; and between these 
two extremes there occurs every conceivable degree of 
branching, from the single shoot produced here and there, 
through every gradation of imperfect whorls up to whorls 
of short branches almost complete. The branches, which 
are simple, nearly erect, and never acquire much length, 
are smooth like the stem. There is no material difference 
between the barren and fertile stems, except the presence 
of the fructification in the one case and not in the other ; 
they are, therefore, said to be similar in structure. 

The surface of the stem is marked with from sixteen to 
twenty very slight ridges, and the sheaths, which are short, 
rather closely fitted to the stem, and of the same colour in 



EQTJISETUM. 231 

the lower part, terminate in an equal number of dark- 
coloured awl-shaped teeth, which sometimes have a pale 
membranous margin. The branches are four- to eight- 
angled. 

Owing to the shallowness of the ridges and furrows, the 
section of the stem shows a nearly smooth exterior outline, 
and the cylinder of the stem is furnished only with a row 
of minute cavities near the inner margin ; this cylinder is 
very thin, compared with the diameter of the stem, the cen- 
tral cavity being unusually large. The present plant, there- 
fore, though it has been considered a variety of K palustre, 
is most strikingly distinct from that species in the structure 
of its stem. 

The fructification is produced by a portion of the 
branches, in cones, at their apex; these cones are ovate 
obtuse, and very frequently sessile in the uppermost sheath. 
The scales are black, exceeding a hundred in number ; the 
spore-cases are pale-coloured. Usually only the termina- 
tion of the central stem bears fructification, but it some- 
times happens, though rarely, that some of the uppermost 
branches are also fertile. 

This plant is the most fodder-like of any of the Equise- 
-Sj owing to its less flinty cuticle, but in this point of 



232 HISTOEY OF BRITISH FEENS. 

view, it is, at least in this country, of very small importance. 
It is, however, stated to be used in Sweden as food for 
cattle, "in order that the cows may give more milk;" and 
in Lapland, it is, even when dry, eaten with avidity by the 
rein-deer, though they will not touch common hay. Linnaeus 
censures the improvidence of the Laplanders, in not pro- 
viding during summer a supply of this plant and of the 
Rein- deer Moss, for winter use; thus making some provision 
for their herds at a. time when the ground is covered with 
frost-bound snow, so as not to risk the loss of their most 
valuable or entire possessions. An instance is related by Mr. 
Knapp, in which a colony of the short-tailed water-rats 
made this plant their food, and in the evening might be 
heard champing it at many yards' distance. 

EQUISETUM MACKAYI, Newman. Dr. Mackay's Eough 
Horsetail. 

This plant, on its discovery in the United Kingdom 
being first make known, was named K elongatum by Sir 
W. J. Hooker. Mr. Newman has, however, since shown 
that it is not the species to which that name belongs, and 
he has given it that which we employ, it being applied in 
compliment to one of the original discoverers of the plant. 

It is one of those species in which the stems that pro- 



EQUISETUM. 233 

duce the fructification, and those which are barren, do not 
differ in any other respect, and are, therefore, said to be 
similar ; and in which, also, the stems are almost branchless, 
the branching being mostly confined to the production of 
one or two erect lateral stems from near the base, and this 
lateral branching is by no means common. Sometimes, 
indeed, the upper part of the stem is also sparingly 
branched, but the branches are produced singly from the 
whorls ; in very luxuriant plants, the branches are now and 
then themselves branched upon a similar plan. 

Like the other species, this has a branching underground 
creeping stem, which is black, and produces whorls of 
branched fibrous roots from its joints. The above-ground 
stems are slender, and erect in their mode of growth ; from 
two to three or four feet high ; deeply furrowed, with a 
double row of elevated points along the ridges, which are 
usually from eight to twelve, but sometimes fourteen in 
number. The sheaths are close, cylindrical, and striated 
like the stem, terminating in a number of teeth equalling 
the striae ; these teeth are long, slender, awl-shaped, black 
with pale membranous margins, and usually, but not al- 
ways, persistent. The sheaths are, for the most part, 
entirely black, but here and there they occur with a narrow 



234 HISTORY OF BRITISH TERNS. 

greyish ring, variable in position, being sometimes central, 
arid at other times near the base or near the margin ; it 
is, however, we believe always, much less decided and 
clearly defined than the pale-coloured band on the sheaths 
of E. hyemale. 

The section of the stem differs from that of E. hyemale, 
to which it presents a general resemblance, in being smaller, 
showing fewer ridges, and having the cavities placed rather 
nearer the inner margin ; the central cavity is also propor- 
tionally smaller. It has, consequently, on the exterior, a 
series of ridges formed of twin projections representing the 
double row of siliceous particles which extends along each 
ridge ; and a series of cavities rather nearer the inner than 
the exterior surface of the ring. 

The fructification consists of small black cone-like heads, 
of an oblong form, terminating in an apiculus. In our 
specimens they appear sessile in the upper sheath, but they 
are said to become elevated on a short pedicel. The scales, 
in one of these cones, number about thirty. 

Equisetum Mackayi is found on the moist banks of the 
mountain glens of Scotland and the north of Ireland. It 
was first found in Ireland, and apparently by two botanists 
in company, Mr. (now Dr.) Mackay, and Mr. Whitla ; this 



EQUISETUM. 235 

was in 1833. It lias subsequently been met with in other 
parts of Ireland,, as well as in Scotland, 

EQUISETUM PALUSTRE, Linnaus. The Marsh Horsetail. 

A common species in boggy places and by the sides of 
ditches and water-courses. It has a creeping underground 
stem, which is black and shining, and from the joints of 
this are produced whorls of slender roots. The part of the 
stem which rises above ground is erect, growing from a 
foot to a foot and a half in height. The presence of fructi- 
fication alone distinguishes the fertile stems from those 
which are unfruitful ; both being erect, and bearing whorls 
of numerous branches. 

The stems are somewhat rough on the surface, but less 
so than in many of the other kinds. They are marked on 
the exterior by prominent ribs, with intervening broad 
deep furrows, the number being variable, from six to eight. 
The joints are invested with nearly cylindrical sheaths, 
which are quite loose, being almost twice the diameter of 
the stem in the upper parts of the plant ; the lower sheaths 
are smaller and rather more funnel-shaped. The sheaths 
terminate in as many acute wedge-shaped teeth as there 
are ridges on the stem ; they are pale-coloured, tipped with 
black or dark brown, and have membranous margins. 



236 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

The stems are usually, except at the base, furnished with 
whorls of numerous simple branches, the number of the 
branches generally corresponding with the furrows of the 
stem. These are slender, four- or five-ribbed, and their 
sheaths set nearly close, and terminate in pale brown lance- 
shaped teeth, having a membranous border. 

In this species, when a section of the stem is examined, 
it shows a series of prominent ridges on the outer face; 
just within these, and over against the furrows, occur a 
circle of moderate sized cavities; and alternating with 
these, and near the inner margin, is a series of much 
smaller circular cavities. The central cavity of the stem 
is comparatively very small, not very much larger than the 
series of openings near the outer surface. The resemblance 
is considerable between its section and that of E. arvense. 

The fructification is a blunt oblong cone, more than an 
inch long, terminating the main stem, and supported on a 
stalk about equal to its own length above the uppermost 
sheath. The whorls of scales in the mature cone are quite 
separated, and expose the white spore-cases attached to the 
margin. The scales in this species exceed a hundred in 
number. The fructification is mature about June. 

Besides the more usual form just described, there are 



EQUISETUM. 237 

some curious variations to which this plant is liable. One 
of the most remarkable has been called the variety poly- 
stackion. It is remarkable in having more or less of the 
branches of the two upper whorls terminating in cones of 
fructification; the usual habit of the plant being to pro- 
duce only one cone, and that on the central stem. The 
cones produced by the branches are, we believe, always 
much smaller than the ordinary cone of fructification pro- 
duced by the main stem, and they are darker-coloured and 
more compact. It has been suggested, that the production 
of these lateral fructifications is accidental, owing to the 
destruction of the top of the main stem, but this explana- 
tion is quite insufficient, since they are sometimes produced 
along with the central head, which moreover varies when 
accompanied by them, being sometimes of the usual size, 
and sometimes reduced in size like the lateral heads. The 
lateral heads are usually later in their appearance than the 
central ones. Occasionally we have seen some of the 
branches of the lowest whorl become elongated, and termi- 
nate in one of these small cones. 

Another form is called nudum, and a very similar variety 
is sometimes called alpinum. There appears to be no ad- 
vantage in attempting to distinguish these, both being de- 



238 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

pauperated forms, depending, no doubt, on the circumstances 
of their growth. They differ from the ordinary plant in 
being altogether smaller, the height ranging from two to 
four or five inches, the lower part of the stems being de- 
cumbent, and the whole stem almost devoid of branches ; 
a few being developed only at their very base. In some 
states, this form has much resemblance to the prostrate 
E. variegatum, but is distinguishable by means of its 
sheaths and fructification. 

The variety, or form, called polystachion, is probably 
rather accidental than constant, and is to be regarded as 
the result of peculiar and changeable circumstances which 
may influence its growth. The variety nudum, or aljsinum, 
seems clearly a depauperization of the plant, either through 
elevation or lack of food, both producing the result of a 
dwarf stunted growth. "We have had no opportunity of 
testing their constancy in cultivation, neither are we aware 
of any experiments having been made on this point, but 
we should expect they would both revert to the common 
form under the influences of domestication. 

EQUISETUM SYLVATICUM, Linn&us. The Wood Horsetail. 
(Plate XX. fig. 3.) 

Perhaps this may be called the most beautiful of the 



EQUISETUM. 239 

Equisetums ; certainly it is extremely elegant in almost 
all stages of its growth, and perhaps never more so than 
shortly after the fertile stems, with their fructification still 
perfect, have begun to develope their lateral branches. 
Later in the season, these branches, which have from the 
first a pendent tendency, droop around with exquisite grace 
on all sides. Mr. Newman, in recording his impressions on 
seeing it growing luxuriantly on a wooded hill-side near 
Loch Tyne, observes : " Each stem had attained its full 
development, and every pendulous branch its full length 
and elegance. Altogether I could have fancied it a magic 
scene, created by the fairies for their especial use and plea- 
sure, and sacred to the solemnization of their moon-lit 
revels. It was a forest in miniature, and a forest of sur- 
passing beauty. It is impossible to give an adequate idea 
of such a scene, either by language or illustration." 

But descending to sober realities. The creeping under- 
ground stem of this Wood Horsetail is, like that of the 
others, dark-coloured and branched, and produces from 
its joints the slender fibrous roots which draw up nourish- 
ment to the plant. The above-ground stems are erect, 
and, in a certain sense, those of them which produce fructi- 
fication, and those which are barren, are similar, except as 



240 HISTORY OP BRITISH PERNS. 

regards this one point. Their resemblance consists in both 
growing up at the same time, and both putting out whorls 
of deflexed branches, less numerous certainly on the fertile 
stems ; but in other respects they differ, as, for instance, 
in the growth of the apices of the fronds. The fertile ones, 
terminating in a catkin which soon perishes, become blunt- 
topped, while the barren ones continue to elongate at the 
point and so become somewhat pyramidal. The barren 
stems are also more slender than the fertile ones, and have 
less inflated sheaths. It will thus appear, that this species, 
in its habit of growth, holds a middle rank between that 
group in which the fertile and barren stems are successive 
and quite dissimilar, and that group in which they are 
simultaneous and present no appreciable difference of struc- 
ture. Something of the same kind occurs in E. umbrosum, 
as will be found noticed under that species. 

The fertile stems, when they first shoot up, are almost quite 
simple, and a few of them remain so, perfecting their cone- 
like head, and then perishing. More usually, by the time 
the catkin has become fully grown, the whorls of branches 
from the upper joints will be seen protruded to the length of 
from half an inch to an inch or rather more. Two, three, 
or four, rarely more, whorls of branches are thus produced 



ra. 241 

from the uppermost joints of the stem, and above these the 
oblong-ovate blunt cone is seated on a bare stalk-like portion 
of the stem, one to two inches long. The stems are round, 
succulent, pale-coloured, with about twelve slender ridges, 
and corresponding shallow furrows, nearly smooth, the 
siliceous particles which coat the surface being too minute 
to impart much roughness. The sheaths are large and loose, 
and are divided at the margin into three or four bluntish 
lobes; their lower half or tubular portion is pale green, 
their upper half or lobes bright russet ; they have an equal 
number of ribs, with the ribs on the stem. The slender 
branches, which are deflexed, grow to about a couple of 
inches in length, and produce from their joints a series of 
secondary branches, which grow from about half an inch to 
an inch in length. The average height of the fertile stems 
is about one foot. 

The barren stems are more slender and less succulent 
than the others ; they also produce more numerous whorls 
of branches. These grow from fifteen to eighteen inches 
high, and are ribbed like the others, only somewhat more 
prominently. The sheaths fit closer than those of the 
fertile stems, but in colour and in the division of their 
margin they resemble them exactly. The whorls of branches 



242 HISTORY OF BRITISH FEKNS. 

are very dense, being compouridly branched. The side 
branches, which measure about four inches in length, are 
constantly branched at every joint with a whorl of branch- 
lets averaging two inches in length, and sometimes these 
branchlets put out another series of short branches. The 
outline of the frond would be nearly pyramidal, were it not 
that the extreme point becomes so slender as to be unable 
to retain itself erect ; the lateral branches are all droop- 
ing or deflexed, and hence the elegant appearance of the full- 
grown fronds. The ultimate branches are three-ribbed, 
which gives them a triangular form ; their joints terminate 
in three long pointed teeth, one of the ribs extending undi- 
vided to the apex of each tooth. The teeth are of the same 
colour as the branch. 

The section of the stem shows a series of shallow ridges 
and furrows ; opposite the latter a ring of largish cavities ; 
and alternating with these on the inner side, another ring of 
very minute cavities, these latter again alternating with a 
circle of angular cavities close to the inner margin of the 
tube. The central cavity measures about half the diameter. 

The fructification is an oblong-ovate cone-like head, con- 
sisting of eighty or more pale brown peltate scales ranged 
in whorls, and to which white spore-cases are attached. 



EQUISETUM. 243 

These, on bursting, disperse a great number of greenish-co- 
loured spores. 

This species grows naturally in moist shady woods ; and 
though local, owing apparently to the conditions necessary 
to its growth, namely, shade and moisture combined in a 
peculiar way, it is, nevertheless, a widely distributed plant, 
and can hardly be considered as uncommon throughout the 
United Kingdom. Its fertile stems are in perfection about 
the middle of April, and its barren stems in June. 

EQUISETUM TELMATEIA, Ehrkart. The Great Horsetail, 
or Great Water Horsetail, of some ; Great Mud Horsetail 
of others. (Plate XX. fig. 2.) 

This is one of those species in which the ordinary fertile 
and the barren stems are perfectly dissimilar, the former 
being short and quite simple, the latter tall and compoundly 
branched. Occasionally a third sort of stem is produced, 
late in the season, which may be called a kind of com- 
promise between the two. Mr. Newman describes such 
steins as reaching maturity about August, and bearing a 
very small proportion to the exclusively barren or fertile 
steins. They are smaller, though with longer joints, have 
shorter, less spreading sheaths, and bear catkins which 
f<re smaller than usual. This state of the plant has been 



244 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

attributed to drought ; and seems to be one of those occa- 
sional and inconstant variations to which plants are liable, 
as they are influenced by the external circumstances of soil 
or climate, or the peculiarities of the seasons. 

The barren stems of this species are very stately objects 
when in a luxuriant condition of growth. They grow erect, 
and are from six to seven feet or more in height, clothed 
nearly to the bottom with spreading proximate whorls, those 
on the stouter parts consisting of thirty to forty branches, 
which are sometimes again branched. The upper whorls 
have many fewer branches. The whorls are most crowded 
towards the top of the stem, and there also the branches 
are about the full length six or eight inches ; lower down 
the stem the branches become shorter, and the whorls more 
distant. The stems measure about an inch and a half in 
diameter at the stoutest part, and from this point decrease 
upwards, becoming very slender at the point. The surface 
is smooth, with mere indications of about thirty faint lines 
extending into the sheaths, and there becoming more appa- 
rent. The sheaths set close to the stem, or nearly so, and 
are half an inch long, green below, with a dark brown ring 
at top, and divided at the margin into slender bristly teeth, 
about half an inch long, dark brown, with paler membranous 



EQTJISETUM. 245 

edges ; the teeth frequently adhere together at the summit 
in twos and threes. The branches have eight or ten ribs 
united in pairs, and their sheaths terminate in four or five 
teeth, each extended into a slender black bristle, and having 
two denticulated ribs. The branches very frequently pro- 
duce a series of two to five secondary branches at their 
second joints. The colour of the main stem is very pale, 
scarcely tinged with green, that of the branches a delicate 
green. The sheaths of the branches, in this and some other 
species, furnish excellent marks for discrimination. 

The fertile stem is erect, simple, from nine inches to a foot 
or more high, succulent, pale brown, and smooth. From 
each of the numerous joints arises a large loose funnel- 
shaped sheath, the upper ones being largest ; they are dis- 
tinctly striated, and terminate in thirty to forty long, slen- 
der, and, according to Hooker, two-ribbed, teeth. The 
sheaths are pale greenish-brown below, darker brown above. 
The catkins are large, between two and three inches long ; 
the scales, often numbering four hundred, are arranged in 
whorls, of which the lower ones are usually very distinct. 
The scales and spore-cases resemble those of the allied kinds. 

A section of the barren stem of this species shows an outer 
surface without ridges and furrows, and in the very narrow 



HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

cylinder of the stem occur two circles of cavities, the outer 
one consisting of large openings, those of the inner minute, 
and alternating with the larger. The central cavity is very 
large, the tissue of the stem being reduced to a very narrow 
ring. 

This is a widely-dispersed and rather common plant, oc- 
curring on moist banks and in muddy places, by the sides 
of streams and the margins of muddy pools. The nature of 
the soil would seem to be of small importance provided it 
has its necessary degree of moisture, for it is recorded as 
occurring both in sandy and in clayey soils, as well as in 
muddy pools. It is frequent in Ireland ; and is found both 
in Scotland and Wales. 

EQUISETUM UMBROSUM, Willdenow. The Shady Horsetail. 

This species of Horsetail was formerly named E. Drum- 
mondii by Sir W. J. Hooker, after Mr. T. Drummond, who 
first discovered it as a native of Britain, but it proves to be 
the same which Willdenow had previously called E. urn- 
brosum. It is a very interesting and distinct plant, inter- 
mediate in its general characteristics between E. arvense and 
E. sylvaticum, but perfectly distinct from both. 

Prom its long, dark-coloured, creeping, underground stem 
are produced, at the joints, whorls of slender fibrous roots, 



EQUISETUM. 247 

and from buds organized at the same points arise the aerial 
stems. These are quite dissimilar in their appearance, some 
being short, quite simple, and terminating in a cone-like 
head of spore-cases; others being without fructification, 
taller, and producing several whorls of long, crowded, slen- 
der branches ; whilst a third kind, of ' common though not 
constant occurrence/ produce whorls of branches and cones 
also. In the production of these three kinds of stems it 
serves to connect, through E. sylvaticum, that group in 
which the fertile and barren stems are successive and alto- 
gether unlike, with that in which any of the stems indif- 
ferently at least as to external appearances bear the fruc- 
tification, all being of similar habit. 

The fertile stems grow about six inches high, and are 
quite branchless ; they are of a pale yellowish-green, having 
numerous joints, the large loose funnel-shaped sheaths pro- 
duced at these points, almost covering the stem, as usually 
described and figured, but in our specimens they are much 
less crowded, a space of from half an inch to an inch oc- 
curring between the adjoining sheaths. These sheaths are 
still paler- coloured than the stem, often almost white, with a 
dark ring below the teeth, which are awl-shaped, pale brown, 
with pale-coloured membranous margins; the teeth are 



48 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

about twenty from twelve to twenty in number, equalling 
the ribs on the sheath. These fertile stems are very slightly 
striated. 

The barren stems grow erect to the height of eighteen 
inches or more, and have their surface disposed in about 
twenty sharp ridges, with corresponding furrows, the ridges 
being coated with prominent siliceous warty particles, so 
that the stems become very rough. The few lower joints 
are without branches, but in all the upper part of the stem 
they produce whorls of from ten to sixteen branches, which 
are simple, and at first drooping, but eventually take a spread- 
ing or slightly ascending direction. The sheaths of these 
barren stems are much smaller than those of the fertile, less 
funnel-shaped, and more closely set to the stem, and their 
teeth are also fewer, shorter, and blunter ; but in respect of 
colour they do not materially differ. The branches, which are 
slender, and about four inches long, are three- or four-ribbed, 
and have loose sheaths, which terminate in three or four short, 
acute, membranous- edged, faintly brown-tipped teeth; the 
ribs of the stem extend upwards into the teeth, one entering 
each, but they do not quite reach the apex. 

The fructification forms a moderate-sized, terminal, oval, 
cone-like head; at first sessile in the uppermost sheath, but 



EQUISETTJM. 249 

becoming elevated on a short stalk. The scales are from 
forty to fifty in number, and are of a pale brown colour, 
bearing numerous whitish spore- cases. 

The branched fertile stems have their sheaths smaller 
than the simple fertile ones, but larger than the barren ones. 
Several of the uppermost joints produce whorls of branches, 
and the stem is terminated by a cone of fructification. In 
these cases, however, the number of branches is less than 
that produced by the ordinary barren stems, and the cone is 
smaller than those produced by the ordinary fertile stems. 
In fact, the parts seem intermediate. 

The section of the stem of this species is very different 
from that of any other, though having most resemblance to 
those of JE. arvense and K sylvaticum. The exterior shows 
a series of sharp ridges with angular furrows ; the central 
cavity rather exceeds a third of the whole diameter; the 
cylinder of the stem is then pierced by three circles of ca- 
vities one of longish oblong openings opposite the furrows, 
one of minute pores exterior to these and opposite the ridges, 
and another of minute pores on their inner side also oppo- 
site the ridges. 

Probably this species is tolerably plentiful in moist shady 
woods, which are the situations it affects, but it has as yet 



250 HISTORY OP BRITISH FERNS. 

been met with only in a limited number of localities in 
Ireland, Scotland, and the north of England. 

EQUISETUM VARIEGATTJM, Weber and Mohr. The Va- 
riegated Bough Horsetail. 

This species is found on the banks of rivers and lakes, and 
in sandy places near the sea. There is considerable variation 
among the plants classed under this name, and met with in 
these different localities, the differences appearing to be 
permanent under cultivation, but we have not yet sufficient 
evidence to treat them as distinct species. We, therefore, 
include as varieties or forms of variegatum,'$\Q dwarf pro- 
cumbent plant sometimes called JEJ. arenarium, and the tall 
stout erect form which has been named E. Wilsoni. 

This is one of the species whose stems are all similar, and 
almost quite unbranched. It extends by means of a widely 
creeping underground stem, rooting in whorls like the other 
species, and producing numerous above-ground stems, often 
springing from joints in such close proximity, that they 
appear in dense tufts. Though so numerously branched 
just beneath or at the surface of the soil, it is not usual that 
any branches are produced on the exposed part of the stems, 
but this sometimes does occur, such branches not growing 
in whorls, but springing singly from the joints, and having 



EQUISETUM. 251 

much similarity to the stem itself; it is the erect form of 
the species, chiefly, which thus becomes branched. The 
stems grow about a foot high, and, in what is taken as the 
typical plant, their surface is very rough, and impressed 
with from four to ten furrows, with alternating, rather pro- 
minent ridges, each ridge margined on both sides, with a 
line of minute siliceous points, which give it the appearance 
of being grooved, and impart the peculiar roughness to the 
steins. The sheaths are slightly enlarged towards their 
margin, ribbed like the stem, green in the lower part, black 
above, and terminating in a fringe of black teeth, equalling 
the ribs in number ; in form ovate, with a broad white 
membranous border, and tipped by a deciduous bristle. 
Sometimes the contrast between the black ring and teeth, 
and the white border to the latter, is very conspicuous. 

A certain number of the stems, usually the most vigorous, 
terminate in a cone of fructification. This is small, elliptic, 
crowned by a prominent point or apiculus. It is usually 
black, and sessile in the uppermost sheath, but sometimes 
elevated on a short stalk. All the stalked cones we have 
seen have been much paler in colour than the sessile ones. 
The scales are about twenty in number, and the spore-cases 
are whitish. 



252 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS, 

The section of the stem shows a small central cavity, an 
exterior surface of rather prominent ridges, each channelled 
so as to form two projecting angles, and a circle of moderate- 
sized cavities occurring about the centre of the tissues. 

Insensibly merging into the form just described appears 
to be another, that sometimes called U. arenarium, which, 
in its extreme state, is smaller and more slender, its stems 
always procumbent, and not having more than six furrows ; 
in this form the teeth of the sheaths are said to be wedge- 
shaped, but we do not detect any differences in respect to the 
teeth between specimens having the erect and the prostrate 
habit of growth. 

Another form, which is perhaps at least a permanent 
variety, and may prove to be specifically distinct, is the 
plant called K Wilsoni by Mr. Newman. With this we 
are entirely unacquainted, except through books, in which 
it is described as being stouter, taller three feet high and 
smoother than the larger form of E. variegatum. The sec- 
tion of its stem also differs materially; the central cavity 
and the ring of cavities occurring in the cylinder of the stern 
being much larger, and the latter differing in form from 
those of E. variegatum. This variety grows in water, at 
Mucruss, in the immediate vicinity of the Lakes of Kil- 



EQUISETUM, 253 

larney. The stems are generally simple, but sometimes 
sparingly branched; they have about ten furrows, with 
broad intermediate ridges, on which the siliceous particles 
are far less prominent, so that the stems are not nearly so 
rough as in the allied E. variegatum, Mackayi, &c. The 
sheaths are scarcely larger than the stem, and are entirely 
green, except a narrow, black, sinuous ring at the margin ; 
the teeth are short, generally blunt, and have obscure mem- 
branous margins. No mention is made of the deciduous 
bristle which occurs in the allied plants. The cone is 
small, black, terminal, and apiculate, and, as occurs in the 
allied kinds, its sheath is larger and looser than the rest, 
the teeth also longer, and their membranous edges dilated 
and conspicuous. Such is the substance of Mr. Newman's 
account of it in his ' History of British Perns/ 

The present species is rather a local plant, but is widely 
dispersed in the three kingdoms, the larger forms growing 
on the margins of lakes, canals, rivers, ditches, &c., the 
smaller prostrate examples occurring on the sandy sea-coasts. 



The Equisetums appear to submit readily to cultivation ; 
at least we have found no difficulty in inducing those of 



254 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

which we have from time to time procured the subterranean 
stems, to grow with freedom. The plan we have adopted 
has been to pot them in loamy soil, and simply to place the 
pots in a cold frame, among a collection of hardy Ferns ; 
or, in the case of some of the aquatic species, to sink the 
pots just beneath the surface of a tank of water. 

There are, it should be remarked, two sets of Equise- 
tumSy which may be called the evergreen and the deciduous 
groups ; and this is a distinction of some importance in re- 
ference to their cultivation. Under the head of evergreen 
should be classed the " rough " group, consisting of K 
hyemale, Mackayi, and variegatum. All the remaining 
species come under the head of deciduous, by which is 
meant that the fronds die down annually in autumn, and 
are renewed from the underground stems in spring. 

The evergreen species are desirable plants for damp, 
shady rock-work, requiring no peculiar care or culture ; and 
though they cannot lay claim to any considerable elegance 
of growth or habit, yet, from their peculiar form and cha- 
racter, they must be looked upon as interesting plants, no 
less for their own sakes, than for the mere pictorial effect 
which their distinct appearance may help to bring out in 
such situations. ' . 



EQUISETIJM. 255 

Of the deciduous kinds most desirable for a similar pur- 
pose, we should select E. sylvaticum and E. umbrosum ; 
these being among the most elegant of the race, and of mode- 
rate size. Both of them would require shade, but nothing 
else beyond what well constructed rock-work would supply. 

Perhaps the most interesting way of cultivating these 
plants would be as a group on a shady border, or in a 
separate bed. In damp cool soil they would be certain to 
succeed. The smaller delicate sorts, such as the procum- 
bent E. variegatwiij should be rather elevated between three 
or four rough stones, over which it would hang ; and for 
the aquatic species, earthenware pans might be sunk, and 
these, half-filled with mud, and the remainder with water, 
would provide all that would be necessary for their well- 
being. 

All the other species would grow in the ordinary soil, 
provided it were sufficiently moist and cool in summer ; 
but the rambling propensities of the underground sterns 
should be checked by planting them in pots sunk in the 
ground. 

The raising of the Eqnwetum* from the spores, too, would 
be very interesting employment, and withal very instructive. 
The spores are very curious bodies, of roundish or somewhat 



256 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

oval form, having four elastic filaments, thickened at the ends, 
coiled around them. These, when the spore has become 
ripe, unroll; and their elasticity, no doubt, contributes to 
burst the case in which the spores are contained, as well as to 
assist in the dispersion of these minute reproductive bodies. 
They are, indeed, so irritable, that a change of temperature 
or moisture, such as that produced by breathing on the 
spores, is sufficient to produce this forcible uncoiling. The 
spores themselves are very interesting microscopic objects ; 
indeed, it is only under a high magnifying power that their 
nature can be examined. 

The germination of the spores has been made the sub- 
ject of experiment by several inquirers, whose observations 
have been published. Agardh states, that from three to 
fourteen days after the spores are sown, they send down a 
thread-like transparent root somewhat thickened at the end, 
and protrude a confervoid, cylindrical, obtuse, articulated, 
torulose thread, which is either two-lobed or simple at the 
apex. Some days after this, several branches are produced, 
and become agglutinated together, forming a body resem- 
bling a bundle of confervoid threads, each of which pushes 
out its own root. Bischoff finds these confervoid threads 
go on growing and combining until a considerable cellular 



EQTJISETUM. 257 

mass is formed. Then, this mode of development ceases, 
and a young bud is formed, which produces the stem of an 
Equisetum, at once completely organized, with its air-cells, 
its central cavity, and its sheaths, the first of which is formed 
before the elongation of the stem, out of the original cel- 
lular matter. 

To watch the minute atoms thus springing into life, de- 
veloping by degrees their tiny stems, and gaining strength 
and bulk day by day until they reach maturity, could hardly 
fail, one would think, to lead a sensitive mind to pure and 
wholesome thought, and to call up the contemplation of 
the wise and beneficent plans and the all-sufficiency of the 
Creator, by whose ordaining providence life interminably re- 
newable had thus been made to spring from the dust-like 
spore, as well as to produce a just appreciation of the un- 
certainty and insufficiency of human agency; for though 
man may plant and water, yet it is God alone that giveth 
the increase. 



258 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE BRITISH FERNS, CLUB-MOSSES, 
PEPPERWORTS, AND HORSETAILS. 

THE limits of this little volume will neither allow of a very 
complete nor very detailed record of the situations in which 
the various Perns and Pern allies are severally found to 
grow ; nor is it indeed necessary that their habitats should 
be so fully and minutely stated in a book such as the pre- 
sent. Instead, therefore, of attempting a full enumeration 
of the localities where they have been found, we shall make 
a selection, with the special view of indicating the districts 
in which the various kinds have been known to occur, and 
to which those who may desire to find them should more 
especially direct their attention. The facts thus selected 
will also afford some insight into the geographical range of 
the species in the British Isles. 

Such a record of facts, even though thus abridged, would, 
however, have a very chaotic character if it were not sys- 
tematized in some way. The most obvious modes of arrange- 
ment seem to be the alphabetical and the geographical ; and 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 259 

of these we prefer the latter, under the impression that the 
former would be far less suggestive and useful. 

In reference to this subject it has been well remarked by 
Mr. Watson, in his 'Cybele Britannica/ that the county 
divisions are too numerous, and the ancient political divi- 
sions too few, to express, with anything like completeness 
and precision, the actual distribution of species ; the first, 
because our information is imperfect ; the second, because 
the areas are too extensive. He has, therefore, in treating 
of the more extended subject of the distribution of the 
flowering plants, proposed another set of divisions, of in- 
termediate extent, which he calls provinces; and as Mr. 
Watson is to be considered our standard authority on this 
question, we shall give his provinces, adding, however, 
Ireland, which he has omitted, to our list, and severing the 
western from the northern isles, as a connecting link with 
that country. We shall thus have the United Kingdom and 
Ireland divided in the following manner : 

Commencing at the south coast of England, a mesial line 
is traced northwards, into the Highlands of Scotland, the 
line corresponding with the boundaries of counties, and 
being traced in that course which best divides the counties 
whose rivers flow to the east coast, from those whose waters 



260 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

are emptied into the western ocean. These two longitu- 
dinal divisions are subdivided transversely into provinces or 
groups of counties, which together constitute the basin of 
a principal river, or have some other physical peculiarity in 
common. The mesial line is not continued northward of 
Inverness, where Scotland becomes very narrow ; and the 
portion of Inverness itself, eastward^ of Loch Erricht, is 
united with the East Highland province. In like manner, 
the extreme north of Lancashire is united with the Lake 
province. The accessible information with reference to 
Ireland is very imperfect. 

The facts embodied in the following pages are derived 
from the principal published lists of localities (among which 
it is hardly needful to say that the ' Phytologist' and Mr. 
Newman's ' History ' stand pre-eminent in this respect) ; 
from the habitats preserved in the herbariums of the Bo- 
tanical Societies of Edinburgh and London (the contents of 
the former having been obligingly communicated by Mr. 
Lawson) ; from our own herbarium and observations ; and 
from several local lists kindly furnished by the gentlemen 
whose names are quoted. We are also indebted to H. C. 
Watson, Esq., for many valuable notes, corrections, and 
suggestions, by the aid of which our list is rendered much 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 261 

more complete and perfect than it would otherwise have 
been. 

Our space would not permit the insertion of authorities, 
except in a few rare instances, for habitats which have been 
previously published. B. S. E. refers to the Herbarium of 
the Edinburgh Botanical Society ; B. S. L. to that of the 
London Society. The use of the signs [ ] implies some 
doubt as to the correctness of the enclosed statements. 

The names given to the Provinces, and the counties they 
severally include, are shown below. The arrangement of 
the Eerns is alphabetical, as in the preceding descriptions ; 
and they are followed by the Club-Mosses, &c. 

1. PENINSULA. Cornwall, Devon, Somerset. 

2. CHANNEL. Hants, Sussex, Dorset, Wilts. 

3. THAMES. Herts, Middlesex, Kent, Surrey, Berks, Ox- 

ford, Bucks, Essex. 

4. OUSE. Huntingdon, Bedford, Suffolk, Norfolk, Cam- 

bridge, Northampton. 

5. SEVERN. Warwick, Gloucester, Monmouth, Hereford, 

Worcester, Stafford, Salop. 

6. S. WALES. Eadnor, Brecon, Glamorgan, Carmarthen, 

Pembroke, Cardigan. 



262 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

7. N. WALES. Anglesea, Denbigh, Flint, Montgomery, 

Merioneth, Carnarvon. 

8. TRENT. Leicester, Eutland, Lincoln, Notts, Derby. 

9. MERSEY. Cheshire, Lancashire. 

10. HUMBER. York. 

11. TYNE. Durham, Northumberland. 

12. LAKES. Westmoreland, Cumberland, and N. of Lan- 

cashire. Isle of Man. 

13. W. LOWLANDS. Dumfries, Kircudbright, Wigton, Ayr, 

Renfrew, Lanark. 

14. E. LOWLANDS. Peebles, Selkirk, Roxburgh, Berwick, 

Haddington, Edinburgh, Linlithgow. 

15. E. HIGHLANDS. Stirling, Clackmannan, Kinross, Fife, 
Perth, Porfar, Kincardine, Aberdeen, Banff, Nairn, 
Elgin or Moray including^' the N. E. of Inverness or 
that part E. of Loch Erricht. 

16. W. HIGHLANDS. Inverness W. of Loch Erricht, 
Argyle, Dumbarton, and the Isles adjacent from Bute 
and Arran to Skye. 

17. N. HIGHLANDS. Ross, Cromarty, Sutherland, Caith- 

ness. 

18. N.. ISLES. Orkney, Shetland. 

19. W. ISLES. Outer Hebrides. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 263 

20. ULSTER (N.). Antrim, Londonderry, Donegal, Tyrone, 
Down, Armagh, Monaghan, Fermanagh, Cavan. 

21. CONNAUGHT (W.). Leitrim, Sligo, Galway, Boscom- 

mon. 

22. LEINSTER (E.). Longford, Westmeath, Meath, Louth, 
Dublin, Kildare, King's, Queen's, Wicklow, Wexford, 
Carlow, Kilkenny. 

23. MUNSTER (S.). Waterford, Tipperary, Clare, Limerick, 

Cork, Kerry. 

24. CHANNEL ISLES. Guernsey, Jersey. 



ADIANTUM CAPILLUS-VENEBIS, linnaw. 

PENINSULA. Carclevv; on the east side of Carrach Gladden, 
between St. Ives and Hayle, in low dripping caves and on 
rocks by the coast, Cornwall. Ilfracombe ; Watermouth ; 
Brinham ; Mewstone Bay, Devonshire. [Clevedon, Somer- 
setshire.] 

SEVERN . [Staffordshire.] 

S.WALES. Dunraven; East Aberthaw, F. Brent; Swansea, 
J. Eiley, B.S.E. (probably an error) ; Port Kirig ; Barry 
Island, Glamorganshire. 



264 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

TRENT. [Derbyshire.] 

HUMBER. [Yorkshire.] 

LAKES. Isle of Man. 

E. HIGHLANDS. [Banks of the Carron, Kincardineshire, accord- 
ing to Professor Beattie, but probably erroneous.] 

W. HIGHLANDS. [Argyleshire. Arran.] 

CONNAUGHT. Lough Bulard, near Urisbeg ; Roundstone, Con- 
nemara, Galway ; Arran Isles. 

MUNSTER. Cahir Conree, near Tralee, Kerry. 

ALLOSORUS CEISPUS, Bernhardi. 

PENINSULA. Exmoor near Challicombe, Devonshire, N. TFard, 
B.S.E. Simmonsbath, Somersetshire. (Perhaps these 
two descriptions refer to one locality.) 

SEVERN. Titterstone Glee hill, Shropshire. Malvern hills, 
Worcestershire. [" Stowe " (? Staffordshire), B.S.E.} 

S. WALES. Glamorganshire. Cardiganshire. 

N. WALES. Cerig-y-Druidion, Denbighshire. Dolgelly ; Cader- 
Idris, Merionethshire. Breiddin hills, Montgomeryshire. 
Cwm-Idwal ; Clogwyn-du-Yrarddu, Snowdon ; Glyder- 
vawr ; Mynidd-Mawr ; Llanberis ; and elsewhere in Carnar- 
vonshire. 

TRENT. Fairfield ; Chinley Hills, Derbyshire. [Rutland.] 

MERSEY. Tag's Ness near Macclesfield, Cheshire. Lancaster ; 
Ch'viger near Todmorden ; !Fo-edge near Bury, Lancashire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 265 

HUMBEB. Settle; Saddleworth; Fountain's Tell; Halifax; 
Wensley Dale ; Cronkley Scar ; Ingleborough, &c., York- 
shire. 

TYNE. Falcon Glints, Teesdale, Durham. Cheviot above Lang- 
ley Ford ; Crag Lake ; Haltwhistle, Northumberland. 

LAKES. Ambleside; Casterton; Morland; and the hill-sides 
of Westmoreland, abundant. Borrowdale ; Winlatta, W. 
Christy, B.S.E. ; Keswick ; Skiddaw ; Helvellyn ; Grass- 
mere ; Scawfell ; Martindale, &c. 5 Cumberland. Conistone, 
Lancashire. 

W. LOWLANDS. Dumfries ; Jardine Hall ; George Town ; 
Queensbury hill ; Eae hill ; hills above Loch Skew ; Mor- 
ton hills ; MofFat-dale, P. Gray ; Dumfriesshire. Sandy 
hills and Douglass hall, Colvend ; Carsethorn, P. Gray ; 
Criffel, Kircudbrightshire. Cuif-hill and Beith, Ayrshire. 
Eenfrewshire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Eildon hills; Winchope, Walter Scott, B.S.E., 
Roxburghshire. South bank of the Whiteadder, Berwick- 
shire. [Edinburghshire.] 

E. HIGHLANDS. Fifeshire, T. B. Bell, B.S.E. Ben Lawers; 
Killin; Glen Tilt; Blair Athol, &c., Perthshire. Clova 
mountains ; Debris on the Sidlaw hills, G. Lawson, B.S.E. ; 
Glen Isla, W. Brand, B.S.E., Forfarshire. Glen CaUater, 
W. Christy, B.S.E. ; Castleton ; Loch-na-garr, H. M. Sal- 
four, Aberdeenshire. Kingussie, A. Rutherford, B.S.E. ; 



266 HISTOEY OF BEITISH PERNS. 

Stone walls near Dalwhinnie, and on the neighbouring 
mountains, Morayshire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Ben Nevis; Gnarrow; Ben Aulder, Western 
Inverness-shire. Argyleshire. Loch Lomond, Dumbarton- 
shire. Ben-na-Caillich, Skye. Isle of Mull. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Eoss-shire. Sutherlandshire. 

W. ISLES. Eoddal, Harris. 

ULSTEE.- Carrickfergus, Antrim. Sleive Bignian; Mourne 
mountains, Down. 

LEINSTEE. Carlingford mountain, Louth. 

ASPLENIUM ADIANTUM-NIGEUM, Linnaus. 

PENINSULA. Cornwall. Devonshire. Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. Dorsetshire. 
Wiltshire. Sussex. 

THAMES. Hertfordshire. Middlesex. Kent. Surrey. Berk- 
shire. Buckinghamshire. Oxfordshire. Essex. 

OUSE. Bedfordshire. Suffolk. Norfolk. Cambridgeshire. 
Northamptonshire. 

SEVEEN. Warwickshire. Gloucestershire. Herefordshire. Wor- 
cestershire. Staffordshire. Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Glamorganshire. Carmarthenshire. Pembrokeshire. 
Cardiganshire. 

N. WALES. Anglesea. Denbighshire. Merionethshire. Flint- 
shire. Carnarvonshire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 267 

TRENT. Leicestershire. Eutland. Nottinghamshire, Derby- 
shire. 

MERSEY. Cheshire. Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Durham. Northumberland. 

LAKES. Westmoreland. Cumberland. North Lancashire. 

W. LOWLANDS. Dumfriesshire. Earcudbright shire. Ayrshire. 
Lanarkshire. Eenfrewshire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Eoxburgh shire. Berwickshire. Edinburgh- 
shire. Linlithgowshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Clackmannanshire. Kinross-shire. Fifeshire. 
Perthshire. Forfarshire. Kincardine shire. Aberdeenshire. 
Banffshire. Moray shire. Nairn shire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Inverness-shire. Argyleshire. Dumbarton- 
shire. Isles of Islay, Cantyre, Arran, and lona. Ailsa 
Craig. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Cromarty. Sutherlandshire. Caithness. 

N. ISLES. Orkney. 

W. ISLES. Tarbet, Harris. 

ULSTER. Antrim. Down (the acute form). 

CONNAUGHT. Galway. Arran Isles. 

LEINSTER. Meath. 

MUNSTER. Kerry (the acute form). Cork (also the acute form 
at Tralee). 

CHANNEL ISLES. Jersey. 



268 HISTORY OP BRITISH PERNS. 

ASPLENIUM FONTANUM, E. Brown. 

THAMES. On an old garden-wall at Tooting, Surrey, D. Haigh. 
(The wall has recently been cleaned, and the plants 
perhaps destroyed.) 

TRENT. Matlock, Derbyshire, H. Shepherd. 

LAKES. [Formerly at Wybourn, Westmoreland; or Wiborn, 
Cumberland.] 

E. HIGHLANDS. Shady rocks near Stonehaven, Kincardine- 
shire, D. Hutcheson. 

ASPLENIUM GEEMANICUM, TFeiss. 

N. WALES. Bocks near Llanrwst (Bwlch-y-Bhyn), Denbigh- 
shire, H. Wilson. 

LAKES. Borrowdale, Cumberland, ZT. E. Smith. 

E. LOWLANDS. Eocks near Kelso on the Tweed, Eoxburgh- 
shire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Dunfermline, Fifeshire, Dr. Dewar. Sten- 
ton rock near Dunkeld, Perthshire. 

ASPLENIUM LANCEOLATUM, Hudson. 

PENINSULA. St. Michael's mount, and other places about Pen- 
zance, abundant; very fine on rocks at Hot Point, and 
other stations near the Land's End; St. Ives, Cornwall. 
Morwell rocks, by the Tamar ; by the Tavy ; by the Plym ; 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 269 

near Cann Quarry; Brickland Monachorum; Tavistock; 

Salcombe ; Torquay ; Bickleigh vale, W. S. Hore, -B.S.E. ; 

Devonshire. Somersetshire. 
CHANNEL. High rocks, Tunbridge Wells, Sussex. 
THAMES. [Near Tunbridge Wells, Kent.] [Oxfordshire.] 
SEVERN. Pennant rocks, near Stapleton; Beechly; Oldbury 

and Court woods, Gloucestershire. [Shropshire.] 
S. WALES. Ramsay Island, Pembrokeshire. Glamorganshire. 
N. WALES. About Barmouth, Merionethshire. Tremadoc ; 

Pwlheli ; Beddgelert ; about Aberglaslyu, Carnarvonshire. 

Near Llanrwst, Denbighshire. 
HUMBER. [Yorkshire.] 
CHANNEL ISLES. Guernsey. Jersey. 

ASPLENIUM MARINUM, Unnaus. 

PENINSULA. Cornish coast generally, very fine at Lamorna. 
Dawlish ; Ilfracombe ; Salcombe ; Torquay ; Babbicombe ; 
Teignmoilth; Lynton, N. B. Ward; and other parts of 
Devonshire. Clevedon; Portishead, Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Isle of Portland ; Purbeck ; Lyme Regis, Dorset- 
shire. Isle of Wight, beyond Knowle towards Blackgang. 
Castle rock at Hastings, Sussex. 

S. WALES. Rocks by the Mumbles Lighthouse, Swansea ; 
Dunraven ; Neath ; Oystermouth ; Barry Island, &c., 
Glamorganshire. CliiFs between Tenby and Saundersfoot ; 



270 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

Fishguard ; St. Davids ; St. Catherine's Island, &c., Pem- 
brokeshire. Aberystwith and elsewhere, Cardiganshire. 

N. WALES. Llanddwyn ; South Stack Lighthouse, Holy head, 
&c., Angiesea. Towyn, Merionethshire. Carnarvon Castle ; 
Orme's head ; Bangor, Carnarvonshire. 

MERSEY. -Eed Noses rocks, New Brighton, at the mouth of 
the Mersey ; Hilbre island, mouth of the Dee, Cheshire. 
Win wick stone-quarry near Warrington ; Newton ; near 
Liverpool ; rocks near Hey sham, Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Cliffs north of Scarborough, Yorkshire. 

TYNE, Marsden rocks ; Black-hall dean, west of Hartlepool ; 
Teesdale, Durham. Howick, Northumberland, T. Wilcke. 
Holy Island, B.S.E. N. Durham. 

LAKES. Sea cave near Silverdale, Westmoreland. Whitehaven ; 
St. Bee's head, Cumberland. Head of Morecambe bay, 
North Lancashire. Isle of Man. 

W. LOWLANDS. Colvend cliffs, Kircudbrightshire, P. Gray. 
Port Patrick, Wigtonshire. Ayrshire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Near Eyemouth, and elsewhere on the Ber- 
wickshire coast. Near Queensferry, Edinburghshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Weems, and elsewhere on the coast of Fife- 
shire. Eed Head, A. Croall, B.S.E. ; east of Auchmithie, 
G. Lawson ; Montrose ; Dysart, Forfarshire. Kincardine- 
shire. Coast of Aberdeenshire. Morayshire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Isles of Bute, Islay, Cantyre, Arran, Staffa, 
Ion a, and Skye ; Ailsa Craig. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 271 

N. HIGHLANDS. Nigg, Ross-shire. rarr,Satheiiandshire,J5.-S'.J^. 

Eocks near Wick ; near Thurso, Caithness, T. Anderson. 
N. ISLES. Hoy and Mainland, Orkney, T. Anderson, who found 

it growing on the inside of St. Magnus 3 Cathedral, from 

whence it is now eradicated by repairs. 
W. ISLES. Little Barve, Harris ; Sheant Isles. 
ULSTER. Newcastle, Down. Isle of Eathlin. Mullaghmore, 

Cavan. 

CONNAUGHT. Abundant along the coast. 
LEINSTER. Howth ; Killiney bay, G. Lloyd, B.S.L., Dublin co. 
MUNSTER. Killarney ; Derrynane, &c., Kerry. Eocks on the 

south coast, Clonmel, Cork, /. Sibbald. Abundant along 

the coast. 
CHANNEL ISLES. Guernsey. Jersey. 

ASPLENIUM EUTA-MUEAEIA, Lmnceus. 

PENINSULA. Cornwall. Devonshire. Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL, Dorsetshire. Wiltshire. Isle of Wight. Hamp- 
shire. Sussex. 

THAMES. Hertfordshire. Middlesex. Kent. Surrey. Berk- 
shire. Buckinghamshire. Oxfordshire. Essex. 

OUSE. Suffolk. Norfolk. Cambridgeshire. Bedfordshire. 
Northamptonshire . 

SEVERN. Warwickshire. Gloucestershire. Herefordshire. Shrop- 
shire. Worcestershire. Staffordshire. 



272 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

S. WALES. Glamorganshire. Carmarthenshire. Pembrokeshire. 
N. WALES. Anglesea. Denbighshire. Merionethshire. Car- 
narvonshire. 
TRENT. Leicestershire. Nottinghamshire. Derbyshire. Eut- 

land. 

MERSEY. Cheshire. Lancashire. 
HUMBER. Yorkshire. 
TYNE. Durham. Northumberland. 
LAKES. Cumberland. Westmoreland. 
W. LOWLANDS. Dumfriesshire. Kircudbright shire. Eenfrew- 

shire. Lanarkshire. 
E. LOWLANDS. Berwickshire. Edinburghshire. Linlithgow- 

shire. 
E. HIGHLANDS. Stirlingshire. Clackmannanshire. Fifeshire. 

Perthshire. Porfarshire. Kincardineshire. Aberdeen shire. 

Banffshire. Morayshire. Nairnshire. 
W. HIGHLANDS. Argyleshire. Dumbartonshire. Ailsa Craig ; 

Isles of Islay and Cantyre. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Cromarty. Sutherlandshire. * Caithness. 
N. ISLES. Orkney. 
W. ISLES. N. Uist. Harris. Lewis. 
CONNAUGHT. Arran Isles. Galway. 
MUNSTER. Cork. 
CHANNEL ISLES. Jersey. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 273 

ASPLENIUM SEPTENTBIONALE, Hull. 

PENINSULA. Near Culbone on the borders of Somersetshire, 
N. Ward. 

THAMES. [Kent.] 

N. WALES. Llan Delhyla, near Llanrwst, Denbighshire. Craig 
Du near Llanberis ; Llyn-y-cwm ; Capel Curig ; Carnedd 
Llewellyn, &c., Carnarvonshire. 

HUMBER. Ingleborough, Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Kyloe crags, Northumberland. 

LAKES. Honister crags ; Scaw-fell; Patterdale ; Keswick; ra- 
vine near Wastwater ; Borrowdale ; vale of Newlands, 
Cumberland. Ambleside, Westmoreland. 

E. LOWLANDS. Minto crags; Jedburgh, Eoxburghshire. Ar- 
thur's Seat and other places in the neighbourhood of Edin- 
burgh. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Stenton rocks, near Dunkeld, Perthshire, 
where occurs a variety with wedge-shaped pinnules some- 
times mistaken for A.germanicum. [Forfarshire.] 

N. ISLES. [Orkney.] 

ASPLENIUM TEICHOMANES, TAnnem. 
PENINSULA. Cornwall ; very fine in Baven's Hugo, C. A. Johns. 

Devonshire; the incised form is also found. Somersetshire. 
CHANNEL. Isle of Wight. Hampshire. Wiltshire. Dorset- 
shire. Sussex. 

T 



274 HISTORY OP BRITISH FERNS. 

THAMES. Hertfordshire. Kent. Isle of Sheppey. Surrey. 
Buckinghamshire. Oxfordshire. Essex. 

OUSE. Suffolk. Norfolk. Cambridgeshire. Bedfordshire. 

SEVERN. Warwickshire. Gloucestershire. Herefordshire. Wor- 
cestershire. Staffordshire. Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Glamorganshire. Carmarthenshire. Pembroke. 

N. WALES. Anglesea. Denbighshire. Montgomeryshire. Me- 
rionethshire. Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Leicestershire. Nottinghamshire. Derbyshire. Eut- 
land. 

MERSEY. Cheshire. Lancashire. The var. incisum is found at 
Kant Clough near Burnley. 

HUMBER. -Yorkshire. 

TYNE . Durham . Northumberland. 

LAKES. Westmoreland. Cumberland. Isle of Man. 

W. LOWLANDS. Dumfriesshire, P. Gray. Kircudbrightshire, 
P. Gray. Eenfrewshire. Lanarkshire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Eoxburghshire. Berwickshire. Edinburgh- 
shire. Linlithgowshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Stirlingshire. Clackmannanshire. Pifeshire. 
Perthshire. Eorfar shire. Kincardineshire. Aberdeenshire. 
Morayshire. Nairnshire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Argyleshire. Dumbartonshire. Isles of 
Islay and Cantyre. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Eoss-shire. Cromarty. Sutheiiandshire. 

N. ISLES. Orkney, T. Anderson. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 275 

W. ISLES. Tarbet, Harris. 
ULSTER. -Antrim. 

CONNAUGHT. Arran Isles. Galway. 

Common in Ireland. 
LEINSTER. 

MUNSTER. Cork. Kerry. 
CHANNEL ISLES, Jersey. 

ASPLENIUM VIRIDE, Hudson. 

SEVERN. Ham Bridge, Worcestershire. Staffordshire. 

S. WALES. Brecon Beacon and Trecastle Beacon, near Brecon; 
Chapel-y-Fin ; rocks near Capel Colbren, Brecknockshire. 
Merthyr-Tydvil ; Cilhepste waterfall, near Pont Nedd 
Vechn ; Darran yr Ogof near Ystradgunlais, Glamor- 
ganshire. 

N. WALES. Cader Idris, Merionethshire. Cwm Idwal ; Twll- 
du; Llyn-y-cwm; Clogwyn-du-Yrarddu ; Clogwyn-y-Gar- 
nedd, T. Butler-, Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Buxton ; Cavedale ; Castleton, Derbyshire. Charley 
forest, Beacon hill, Leicestershire. 

MERSEY. Carr-edge, Cheshire. Dulesgate ; Staley, Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Settle ; Craven ; Ingleborough ; Gordale ; Widdal 
Fell, Wensley Dale ; Ogden Clough, near Halifax ; Beeth 
Moor, Swaledale ; and other parts of Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Falcon Glints, Teesdale ; Weardale, TF. C. Tremlyan, 
Durham. Banks of the Irthing, Northumberland. 



276 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

LAKES. Bocks above Patterdale; Kendall Tell, W. Christy, 

B.S.E. ; Hutton Boof ; Farlton ; Arnside ; Casterton 

Fell ; Mazebeck Scar, Westmoreland. Ashness Gill ; 

Borrow Force ; Gilsland, Cumberland. 
W. LOWLANDS. Bold Craig, near Moffat, W. A. Little; Grey 

Mare's Tail, W. Stevens, Dumfriesshire. Palls of the 

Clyde, Lanarkshire. 
E. HIGHLANDS.- Stiiiingshire. Ben Chonzie, near Crieff ; 

Blair Athol ; Ben Lawers, Perthshire. Canlochen; 

Clova, Porfarshire, A. Croall, B.S.E. Cawdor woods, 

Nairnshire. Aberdeenshire. 
W. HIGHLANDS. Inverness-shire. Dunoon, and other parts of 

Argyleshire. Ben Yoirlich, Dumbartonshire. Ben More, 

Isle of Mull. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Assynt, Sutherlandshire. Boss-shire. 
ULSTER. Near Lough Eask, Donegal. 
CONN AUGHT. Ben Bulben, Sligo. 
MUNSTER. Bandon, Cork. Turk mountain, Killarney, Kerry. 

ATHYBIUM PILIX-PCEMINA, Roth. 

A common species, the distribution of which is very imperfectly 

recorded. 

PENINSULA. Trevenna (var. convemm as rTiaeticum)^ &c., Corn- 
wall. Devonshire ; also Salterton (a monstrous state, 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 277 

approaching latifolium), H. B. M. Harris, B.S.E. So- 
mersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Isle of Wight. Hampshire. Dorsetshire. Wilt- 
shire. Tunbridge Wells (var. convexum), Miss Bower, 
and elsewhere, Sussex. 

THAMES. Hertfordshire. Kent. Portnall Park Virginia 
Water and Shirley (var. convexum) ; Mayford (var. molle), 
and other parts of Surrey. Oxfordshire. Essex. 

OUSE. Suifolk. Norfolk. Cambridgeshire. Bedfordshire. 

SEVERN. Arbury Park (with the vars. convexum and molle), 
and in other parts of Warwickshire. Gloucestershire. 
Newport, Monmouthshire. Worcestershire. Staffordshire. 
Shrewsbury, &c., Shropshire (var. convexum as irriguum). 

S. WALES. Brecknockshire. Glamorganshire. Carmarthen- 
shire. Pembrokeshire. 

N. WALES. Anglesea. Denbighshire. Flintshire. Aber (var. 
convexum as irriguum) , &c., Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Leicestershire. Nottinghamshire. Derbyshire. Rutland. 

MERSEY. Cheshire. Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Yorkshire ; also Mickley Barrows (var. convexum). 

TYNE. Northumberland. Durham. 

LAKES. Keswick, Cumberland (with var. latifolium), Miss 
Wright. Westmoreland. 

W. LOWLANDS. Dumfriesshire. Kircudbrightshire. Ren- 
frewshire. Lanarkshire. 



278 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

E. LOWLANDS. Edinburghshire. Jedburgh, Koxburghshire 
(var. convexum as irriguum). Berwickshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Clackmannanshire. Fifeshire. Ben Lomond, 
Stirlingshire. Sidlaw hills, and other parts of Eorfarshire. 
Near Dalnacardoch (var. convexum as irriguum), Dr. Graham, 
B.S.E., &c., Perthshire. Corymulzie Linn, Braemar (var. 
crispum), W. C. Trevelyan ; also sea-cave near Aberdeen (var. 
marinum), Dr. Dickie ; and elsewhere, Aberdeenshire. 
Banffshire. Morayshire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Inverness-shire. Argyleshire. Dumbarton- 
shire. Isles of Islay, Canty re ; Arran (var. convexum) ; 
Brodick (var. molle). 

N. HIGHLANDS. Cromarty. Sutherlandshire. Caithness. 

N. ISLES. Orkney, common, T. Anderson. 

W. ISLES. N. Uist. Harris. Lewis. 

ULSTER. The hill "Orah," Antrim^ 
(var. crispum), A. Smith. 

CONNAUGHT. 

LEINSTER. Wicklow (var. multifldum -r 7 

Yery common in Ireland. 
oicfurcatum), D. Moore. 

MUNSTER. Cork. Kerry; also Mu- 

cruss, Killarney (var. convexum as 

irriguum) . 
CHANNEL ISLES. Jersey. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION . 279 

BLECHNUM SPICANT, Both. 

PENINSULA. Cornwall. Devonshire. Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Hampshire. Isle of Wight. Dorsetshire. Wilt- 
shire. Sussex. 

THAMES. Hertfordshire. Kent. Surrey. Middlesex. Berk- 
shire. Oxfordshire. Essex. 

OUSE. Suffolk. Norfolk. Cambridgeshire. Bedfordshire. 
Northamptonshire. 

SEVERN. Warwickshire. Gloucestershire ; Nailsworth (fronds 
partially fertile), G. F. Playne. Monmouthshire. Here- 
fordshire. Worcestershire. Staffordshire. Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Brecknockshire. Glamorganshire. Carmarthen- 
shire. Pembrokeshire. 

N. WALES. Anglesea. Denbighshire. Flintshire. Merio- 
nethshire. Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Leicestershire. Eutland. Lincolnshire. Notting- 
hamshire. Derbyshire. 

MERSEY. Cheshire. Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Yorkshire. 

TYNE. TanfieldDean (segments of barren frond cut), T. Wilcke. 
Blaydon Burn (segments bifid), T. WilcJce, Durham. 
Northumberland. 

LAKES. Westmoreland. Cumberland. Conistone, Lancashir 
(fronds partially fertile), Miss Beever. 



280 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

W. LOWLANDS. Dumfriesshire. Kir cudbright shire. Renfrew- 
shire. Lanarkshire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Roxburghshire. Berwickshire. Edinburgh- 
shire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Clackmannanshire. Fifeshire. Kinross-shire. 
Perthshire. Forfarshire. Kincardineshire. Aberdeen- 
shire. Banffshire. Morayshire. Inverness-shire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. W. Inverness-shire. Argyleshire. Dum- 
bartonshire. Isles of Islay and Cantyre. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Ross-shire. Cromarty. Sutherlandshire. 
Caithness. 

N. ISLES. Orkney. 

W. ISLES. N. Uist. Harris. Lewis. 

ULSTER. Not likely to be absent from this province, but we do 
not find its occurrence mentioned. 

CON NAUGHT. Arran Isles. 

LEINSTER. Wicklow. 

MUNSTER. Cork. Clare. 

CHANNEL ISLES. Jersey. 

BOTRYCHIUM LUNARIA, Linnceus. 

PENINSULA. Cardynham, Cornwall. Near Barnstaple ; by the 
Dart ; Haldown hill, Devonshire. Bath ; King's Weston ; 
Hampton Cliffs, &c., Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Titchborne ; New Alresford ; Petersfield ; Somborne 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 281 

near Winton ; Hinton, &c., Hampshire. Luccomb ; Shank- 
lin, Sec., Isle of Wight. Patching ; Storrington ; Croboro' 
Warren, &c., Sussex. Alderbury common ; near Bath, 
within Wiltshire. Sturminster Newton, Dorsetshire. 

THAMES. Dartford; Chiselhurst; Foot's Cray, and the south 
part of Kent. Beigate; Shere; Albury; Dorking; Shirley; 
Highdown heath near Godalming ; Farnham Park, Surrey. 
Shotover hill ; Winchwood forest, Oxfordshire. 

OUSE. Oakley Westfield, Bedfordshire. Bury, Suffolk. He- 
veringham heath; Stratton heath; Seething, Norfolk. 
Little Linton; Balsham; Chippenham, Cambridgeshire. 
Halston heath ; Would field, &c., Northamptonshire. 

SEVERN. Moxhall ; near Coleshill Pool, Warwickshire. Glou- 
cestershire. Duncumb and elsewhere, Herefordshire. Ab- 
berly hill; Oversley hill near Ancester; Stourbridge, 
Worcestershire. Cheadle ; Farley, Staffordshire. Stollerton ; 
Titterstone Clee hill ; Ludlow, Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Glamorganshire. 

N. WALES. Anglesea. Wrexham, Denbighshire. Near Eod- 
ney's Pillar, Montgomeryshire. Penmaen Mawr, Carnar- 
vonshire. 

TRENT. Rutland. Loughborough ; Market Harborough ; Ashby 
de la Zouch ; Twycross, &c., Leicestershire. Lincolnshire. 
Sutton on Trent ; Newstead ; Clifton; Paplewick; Norton; 
Sherwood Forest, Nottingham. Buxton; Masson near 
Matlock, Derbyshire. 



282 HISTORY OF BRITISH TERNS. 

MERSEY. Near Over ; between Egremont and New Brighton ; 
Macclesfield, &c., Cheshire. Chilburn, near Todmorden; 
Newton ; Oldham ; Bootle, &c., Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Teesdale; Cronckley Fell; Hambleton hills; Hali- 
fax ; Eichmond ; Settle ; Sheffield, and various other parts 
of Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Near Shewing Shields; Hexham; Horsley, /. Bigge; 
Tynemonth; Newcastle Town Moor, Northumberland. 
Near Marsden rocks ; Beamish, Durham. 

LAKES. Keswick; Castle Sowerby; Daleton; Flimby; As- 
patria, &c., Cumberland. Eigmaden, and elsewhere, West- 
moreland. 

W. LOWLANDS. About Dumfries; Drumlanrig; Barhill, Tin- 
wald, P. Gray, Dumfriesshire. Dalscarith ; Glen of Ter- 
regles; Douglas Hall, Colvend; and elsewhere, Kircud- 
brightshire, P. Gray. Portpatrick, Wigtonshire. Ayr- 
shire. Cathkin hills, Lanarkshire. Gourock, Eenfrew- 
shire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Bernerside hill; Blackburnrigg Dean; Col- 
dingham Moor, Berwickshire. Pentland hills and else- 
where, Edinburghshire. Linlithgowshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Clackmannanshire. Kinross-shire. Fifeshire. 
Ben Lawers ; S. of Loch Tay ; Blair Athol ; Craig Chal- 
liach, Perthshire. Kingoldrum, G. Lawson; Clova moun- 
tains ; Sands of Barry ; Montrose ; Arbroath, 8cc., Forfar- 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 283 

shire. Kincardineshire. Belhelvie Links ; Corsehill, &c., 

Aberdeenshire. Mortlock, Banffshire, B.S.E. Morayshire. 

Auldean, Nairnshire. 
W. HIGHLANDS. Glen Croe, Argyleshire, B.S.L. Mugdock, 

Dumbartonshire. Eothesay, Bute. Breeze hill, Skye. 
N. HIGHLANDS. Eoss-shire. Wick, Caithness, rare, I 7 . Anderson. 
N. ISLES. Orkney. Shetland. 
ULSTER. Eoughfort ; Belfast ; Altmore glen near Cushendall ; 

Black mountain, Antrim. Benyvena mountains near Ma- 

gelligan, Londonderry. Scrabo, Down. 
LEINSTER. Luggelaw, Wicklow. 
MUNSTER. Clonmel, Cork, J.Sibbald. 

CETEEACH OmCINAEUM, Willdenow. 

PENINSULA. Trevenna; Truro; Newlyn; Calstock; Pentillie 
Castle, Cornwall. Topsham ; Torquay ; Babbicombe ; 
Plymouth, &c., Devonshire. Bristol ; Bream down ; 
Clevedon ; Cheddar ; Weston-super-mare, &c., Somerset- 
shire. 

CHANNEL. Winchester Cathedral; Pitt near Winchester ; Netley 
Abbey; Selborne; Botley, &c., Hampshire. Brading; 
Carisbrooke Castle, &c., Isle of Wight, Sherborne, Dor- 
setshire. Corsham, B.S.E., and other parts of Wiltshire. 
Pulborough; Enfield; Hurstpierpont ; Stopham; Harden; 
Chailey, &c., Sussex. 



284 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

THAMES. Hertfordshire. [Middlesex.] Biverhead; Maidstone, 
and various parts of Kent. Westbrook and Catteshall near 
Godalming; Haslemere; Farnhain, Surrey. [Berkshire.] 
Cowley, Oxfordshire. Essex. 

OUSE. Heveringham church ; Heydon church, Norfolk. North- 
amptonshire. 

SEVERN. Tachebrook; Coventry, Warwickshire. Stapleton; 
Chepstow; Cheltenham; Cirencester, &c., Gloucestershire. 
Tintern Abbey ; Pont-y-pool, &c., Monmouthshire. Here- 
ford; about Boss; Leominster, &c., Herefordshire. Mal- 
vern ; Badsey near Evesham ; Wychwood forest, Worces- 
tershire. Wetton ; Berresford ; Beeston-tor, &c., Stafford- 
shire. Ludlow, Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Brecon; Talgarth; Crickhowel, Brecknockshire. 
Aberdare ; Cardiff, F. Brent ; Swansea ; Gower ; Pennard 
Castle, &c.j Glamorganshire. Carmarthenshire. Tenby; 
Pembroke and Manorbeer castles ; Haverfordwest priory, 
Pembrokeshire. 

N. WALES. Holyhead, Anglesea. Denbighshire. Barmouth, 
Merionethshire. Trebroth ; Bangor ; near Carnarvon, 
Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Colwick park; Paplewick, Nottinghamshire. Dove- 
dale ; Newton near Melbourne ; Lath-kill dale, Derbyshire. 

MERSEY. Carr-edge, Cheshire. Lancaster; Club-moor near 
Liverpool ; West Houghton ; Kellet north of Manchester, 
Lancashire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 285 

HUMBER. Eocks behind Malharn ; Kirklees park near Halifax ; 
about Settle, Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Northumberland. 

LAKES. ArnsideKnot; Milnthorpe; Kendal; Castleton; Am- 
bleside, Sec., Westmoreland. Sandwith ; St. Bees ; Gow- 
barrow park, Ulswater, Cumberland. Silverdale, N. Lan- 
cashire, T. Simpson, B.S.E. 

W. LOWLANDS. Drumlanrig, Dumfriesshire. Orchardton Buit, 
Kircudbrightshire, /. Fraser. Paisley, Eenfrewshire. Glas- 
gow, Lanarkshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Kinnoul hill; near Annat Cottage, G.Lawson; 
Dens of Balthayock and Pitroddie, Perthshire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Kilfinnan, Argyleshire. 

ULSTER. Galgorm; Cave-hill, Antrim. Bryansford, Down. 
Florence Court, Fermanagh. 

CONNAUGHT. Drumahore, Friarstown Abbey near Sligo, /. T. 
Syme, B.S.E. Eound tower of Eoscommon between Gal- 
way and Oughterard ; near Mohir ; Oughterard ; and many 
other parts of Galway. Arran Isles. 

LEINSTER. Marlay, co. Dublin (on granite), S. Foot, B.S.E. 
Glendalough, Wicklow. Marble quarries at Kilkenny. 

MUNSTER. Between Clonmel and Waterford, and many parts 
of Waterford. Castle-Connel and elsewhere, Clare. Cork ; 
Clonmel, &c., Cork. Limerick. About Killarney, Kerry. 

CHANNEL ISLES. Jersey. 



286 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

CYSTOPTEBIS ALPINA, Desvaux. 
THAMES. Wall at Low Lay ton, Essex. 

TRENT. Derbyshire, Mr. H. Shepherd, | who tas sent speci . 
HUMBER. Yorkshire, Mr. H. Shepherd, / mens thus located. 

CYSTOPTEEIS FRAGILIS, Bernhardi. 

PENINSULA. Exwich near Exeter, Devonshire. Cheddar cliffs 
(with var. dentata) ; Hampton cliffs, Bath, R. Withers, 
&c., Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Dorsetshire. Box, Wiltshire, Dr. Alexander, B.S.E. 
(var. dentata). Tunbridge Wells, Sussex, Miss Bower (var. 
dentata). 

THAMES. Albury, Surrey. 

OUSE. Yoxford ; Bungay, Suffolk. Norfolk. [Northampton- 
shire.] 

SEVERN. Near Arbury Hall (var. dentata) ; Compton Yerney, 
Warwickshire. Near Bristol, &c., Gloucestershire. Skirrid 
Vawr, near Abergavenny (with var. dentata) ; Wyndcliff 
woods, TF. H. Purchas, Monmouthshire. Downton (var. 
angustatd) ; The Dowards on the Wye (var. dentata), Here- 
fordshire. Breedon hill ; Bromsgrove, Worcestershire. 
Staffordshire (with var. dentata). Whitcliff near Ludlow, 
Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Radnorshire. Brecknockshire. Pont-nedd-Vechn, 
&c., Glamorganshire (with var. dentata). Cardiganshire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 287 

N. WALES. Anglesea (var. dentatd). Llangollen (var. dentatd) ; 
near Wrexham (with var. dentatd}, Denbighshire. Castle 
Dinas, Flintshire (var. dentatd). Craig Breiddin, Mont- 
gomeryshire (var. dentatd), W. A. Leighton, B.S.E. Bar- 
mouth, Merionethshire. Llanberis (vars. dentata and an- 
gustatd) ; Cwm-Idwal, Clogwyn-y-Garnedd, Penmaen Mawr 
(var. dentata\ and elsewhere, Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Leicestershire. Oxton and Bulwell churches ; Work- 
sop, Nottinghamshire. Fairfield (with var. dentatd) ; Dove- 
dale (var. dentatd) Matlock baths (with vars. dentata and 
angustatd) ; Castleton ; Lover's leap near Buxton, Derby- 
shire. 

MERSEY. Eostherne church, Cheshire. Lancashire. Var. 
dentata in both counties. 

HUMBER. About Settle (with vars. dentata and angustatd) ; Rei- 
vaulx Abbey, Helmsley ; Egglestone bridge on the Greta ; 
Dropping well, Knaresborough ; Castle Howard Park ; 
Halifax ; Ayrsgarth bridge, Wensley dale (var. angustatd), 
and many other parts of Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Cauldron snout (var. dentatd), &c., Durham. Halt- 
whistle ; Mitford church near Morpeth (with var. dentatd), 
. B.S.E., Northumberland. 

LAKES. Lamplugh, /. Dickinson, B.S.E. ; and elsewhere, Cum- 
berland. Kendal (with var. dentatd), and other parts of 
Westmoreland. Silverdale, -N. Lancashire (var. dentata). 



288 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

W. LOWLANDS. Near Hobb's Linn, Moffat dale, Dumfriesshire 
(var. dentatd), P. Gray. [Formerly on Cluden hills, Kir- 
cudbrightshire (var. dentatd), P. Gray.'] Calderwood, 
Lanarkshire, T. B. Sell, B.S.E. 

E. LOWLANDS. Coldstream; near Mains, Berwickshire. Pent- 
land hills (var. angustatd), and elsewhere, Edinburghshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Banks of Loch Lomond, Stirlingshire (var. 
dentatd). Castle Campbell near Dollar, Clackmannanshire. 
Den of Balthayoch ; Glen Queich in the Ochils ; Pass of 
Killiecrankie ; Killin, Perthshire. Glen Clova and Glen 
Isla, Eorfarshire. Kincardineshire coast. Sea cave-near 
Aberdeen (var. Dickieana) ; and elsewhere, .Aberdeenshire. 
Cawdor Castle, Nairnshire. Kingussie (var. dentatd), Mo- 
ray shire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Ben Nevis, Inverness-shire (var. dentatd). 
Dunoon, Argyleshire. Dumbartonshire. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Coul, Eoss-shire, J. Fraser, B.S.E. Suther- 
laudshire. Morven, Caithness (var. dentatd), T. Anderson. 

N. ISLES. Hoy, Orkney (with var. dentatd), T. Anderson. 

W. ISLES. Langa, Harris, Dr. Balfour. 

ULSTER. Eocks at Carrickfergus, Antrim (vox.dentata). Black 
mountain, Down. 

CONN AUGHT. Leitrim. Connemara, Galway. Sligo, near the 
town. 

MUNSTER. Brandon hill ; cliifs above Mangerton, Kerry. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 289 

CYSTOPTEEIS MONTANA, Link. 

N. WALES. [Found in this province (Plukenet), H. 0. Stephens.] 

E. HIGHLANDS. Ben Lawers, W. Wilson, 1836 ; Corrach 

Dh J Oufillach, in the Mhiel Oufillach mountains, between 

Glen Dochart and Glen Lochay, W. Gourlie and others 

in 1840, and subsequently, Perthshire. 

HYMENOPHYLLTJM TUNBBIDGENSE, Smith. 

PENINSULA. Bough tor near Camelford ; near Penryn, Corn- 
wall. Bickleigh Vale ; Vixen tor, Staple tor, and Shaugh, 
Dartmoor, Devonshire. Shepton Mallett, Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Kent. Tunbridge Wells ; Cockbush near Chi- 
chester ; West Hoathly ; Ardingley ; Handcross ; Tilgate 
forest, J.A. Brewer, Sussex. 

SEVERN . [Staffordshire .] 

S. WALES. Melincourt waterfall; Pont-nedd-Vechn, Glamor- 
ganshire. Brecknockshire. 

N. WALES. Crofnant near Harlech; Dolgelly ; Barmouth; 
vale of Eestiniog, Merionethshire. [Anglesea.] [Car- 
narvonshire.] 

MERSEY. Near Croyden brook ; hills from Macclesfield to 
Buxton, Cheshire. Cliviger ; Greenfield near Saddleworth ; 
Eake Hey common near Todmorden, Lancashire. 

HUMBER, Eskdale near Whitby; near Halifax, &c., Yorkshire. 

u 



290 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

LAKES. Ennerdale, Cumberland, J. Dickinson, B.S.E. West- 
moreland. Conistone, North Lancashire. 
W. LOWLANDS. Drumlanrig, Dumfriesshire. Banks of the 

Clyde, Lanarkshire. 
E. LOWLANDS. Peeblesshire. 
E. HIGHLANDS. [Stirlingshire.] [Perthshire.] 
W. HIGHLANDS. Bullwood; Dunoon, Argyleshire. Banks of 

Loch Lomond, Dumbartonshire. Isle of Bute, Dr. Balfour. 
N. HIGHLANDS. [Ross-shire.] 
CONNAUGHT. Connemara, Dr. Graham ; Ballynahinch, Dr. 

Balfour, Galway. 
LEINSTER. Dublin co., rare, B.S.E. Powerscourt ; Glencree, 

and elsewhere, Wicklow. 
MUNSTER. Clonmel, /. Sibbald-, Glengariff, Bantry, C. C. Ba- 

Ungton, B.S.E., Cork. Glen Carnn, W. Andrews, B.S.E. ; 

about Killarney, and elsewhere in the co. of Kerry. 

HYMENOPHYLLUM UNILATEEALE, Willdenow. 

PENINSULA. Bodmin; Carn Brea near Eedruth; Eough tor 
near Camelford ; Granite tor, Cornwall. Moreton, R. J. 
Gray, West Lynn, N. R. Ward; Vixen tor, Westman's 
wood, and Shaugh bridge, Dartmoor; Tynemouth; Bick- 
leigh wood, Devonshire. 

SEVERN. Gradbitch near Flash, Staffordshire. Treflach wood, 
- Shropshire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 291 

S. WALES. Mountains of Brecknockshire. Pont Breu ; Devil's 
bridge; Hafod, Cardiganshire. Carmarthenshire. 

N.WALES. Dolgelly ; Ehaidr Du near Maentwrog; Ehaidr- 
y-Mawddach ; Festiniog, Merionethshire. Cwm Idwal and 
throughout the Snowdon district ; Ehaidr Mawr, near 
Llanberis, &c., Carnarvonshire. 

MERSEY. Near Bury ; Lancaster ; Greenfield ; Thevilly near 
Burnley, Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Tamer Clough, Eishworth ; Hawl Gill near Mickle- 
ton ; Lower Harrowgate, Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Jurionside, Northumberland, B.S.E. 

LAKES. Patterdale; Stock Gill force; Langdale Pikes, Amble- 
side, Sec., Westmoreland. Keswick ; Bow Fell ; Scaw-Fell ; 
Borrowdale ; Ennerdale, J. Dickinson ; Scale force near 
Buttermere ; Honister Crag, &c., Cumberland. Xear 
Conistone, Miss Beever ; Old Man mountain ; Silverdale, 
N. Lancashire. 

W. LOWLANDS. Dalvene Pass ; Nithside ; near Penpont ; Grey 
Mare's Tail, Moffat dale, P. Gray, Dumfriesshire. Kircud- 
brightshire. Glen Ness, W. Dalmellington, Ayrshire, 
Dr. M'Nab, B.S.E. Eocks above Gourock, Renfrewshire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Peeblesshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. By the Eeeky Linn on the Isla, Forfarshire. 
Dollar, Clackmannanshire. Glen Queich in the Ochils ; 
Ben Lawers ; Pass of Loney, B.S.E. ; Finlarig Burn, near 



292 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

Killin; rocks in the Trosachs; shores of Loch Katrine, 

Perthshire. 
W. HIGHLANDS. Crinnan; Glen Moray; Dunoon ; Glen Fin- 

nart, Argyleshire. Banks of Loch Lomond ; Bowling 

hills, Dumbartonshire. Ben More; Loch Spelire; Taber- 

morey, Isle of Mull. Isles of Islay and Arran. 
N. HIGHLANDS. Sutherlandshire. 

N. ISLES. Hoy, Orkney, E. Heddell. Near Ska, Unst, Shetland. 
W. ISLES. Langa, Harris. 
LTLSTER. By the Glenarve river near Cushendall ; Colin Glen, 

Belfast, Antrim. Londonderry. Ennishowen mountains. 

Donegal. Tullaghmore park ; Mourne mountains, Down. 

Florence Court, Fermanagh. 
CONNAUGHT. Connemara, Oughterard, &c., Galway. Mountains 

of Mayo, J. Ball, B.S.L. 
LEINSTER. Dublin, S. loot, B.S.E. Glendalough ; Hermitage 

Glen ; Powerscourt waterfall, and other parts of Wicklow. 
MUNSTER. Glens near Youghal, Cork. Great Blanket Island ; 

Killarney, and among the mountains of Kerry. 

LASTEEA CEISTATA, PresL 
PENINSULA. [Devonshire.] 

THAMES. Epping forest, Essex (uliginosa), E. Newman. [Ox- 
fordshire.] 
OUSE. Westleton; Bexley decoy near Ipswich, H. Bidwell, 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 293 

Suffolk. Bawsey heath near Lynn (with uliginosd) ; Der- 
singham ; Edgefield near Holt (with uliginosd) ; Eritton 
near Yarmouth ; Surlingham broad near Norwich (appa- 
rently with uliginosd), TT. S. Hore ; Wymondham (uliginosd), 
Norfolk. Huntingdonshire. Bedfordshire.] 
SEVETIN. Near Madeley, Staffordsmre. [Worcestershire.] 
TRENT. Oxton bogs (with uliginosd) ; Bull well marshes, Not- 
tinghamshire. 

MERSEY. Wybunbury bog, Cheshire (with uliginosd). Wool- 
ston moss near Warrington, Lancashire (uliginosd), W. 
Wilson, B.S.L. 

HUMBER. [Plumpton rocks near Knaresborough, Yorkshire, 
according to Baines's Elora of Yorkshire, but there is 
probably some mistake.] 

E. HIGHLANDS. [Aberdeenshire.] [Kincardineshire ; uliginosa.'] 
MUNSTER. Mucruss, Killamey, Kerry (var. uliginosd), Dr. 
Mackay. [The plant from Eathronan near Clonmel seems 
to be rather a state of L. Filix-mas.~\ 

LASTEEA DILATATA, Presl. 

PENINSULA. Cornwall. Lynmouth ; Torquay ; Walkhampton, 
Sec., Devonshire. Inglishcombe wood, Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Hampshire. Ninham near Hyde, Isle of Wight. 
Dorsetshire. Wiltshire. Hastings ; Tunbridge Wells, 
Sussex. 



294 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

THAMES. Hertford heath; Broxbourne ; Aldenham; Hitchin, 
&c., Hertfordshire. Eridge rocks, Kent. Chertsey ; Bag- 
shot ; Virginia Water, and other parts of Surrey. Hamp- 
stead, Middlesex. Epping, Essex. 

OUSE. Norwich, Norfolk. Cambridgeshire. Northamptonshire. 

SEVERN. Stoke heath; Stinchall; Whitley; and other parts of 
Warwickshire. Gloucestershire. Howie hill, Eoss ; Col- 
wall, Herefordshire. Worcestershire. Staffordshire. Shrop- 
shire. 

S. WALES. Brecknockshire. Glamorganshire. Cardiganshire. 
Pembrokeshire. 

N. WALES. Denbighshire. Flintshire. Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Leicestershire. Black rock, Cromford moor, near 
Matlock, Derbyshire (var. dumetorum). Lincolnshire. Not- 
tinghamshire. 

MERSEY. Lindon moss near Mobberley, Cheshire. Eisley moss 
near Warrington ; Clough near Manchester, and elsewhere 
on the hills (var. collina) of Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Leckby Carr ; Heckfall wood; Sheffield moor; 
Settle ; Halifax ; Ingleborough (var. collina), and elsewhere, 
Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Morpeth, Northumberland. Durham. 

LAKES. Near Elter water (var. collina), and elsewhere (var. 
dumetorum), Westmoreland. Red house, Cumberland. 

W. LOWLANDS. Dumfriesshire. Aryshire. Lanarkshire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 295 

E. LOWLANDS. Roxburghshire. Berwickshire. Edinburgh- 
shire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Stirlingshire. Clackmannan shire. Kinross- 
shire. Eifeshire. Mountains near Crieff (as var. montana), 
Dr. Balfour, &c., Perthshire. Eorfarshire. Kingcausie, 
Kincardineshire, /. T. Syme. Ben-na-Baird, Aberdeenshire. 
Banffshire. Morayshire. E. Inverriess-shire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Appin, Argyleshire, /. T. Syme. Dumbarton- 
shire. W. Inverness-shire. Goat-fell mountain, Arran (as 
L. maculata). Dr. Deakin. Isles of Islay and Cantyre. 
Ailsa Craig. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Ross-shire. Sutherlandshire. Caithness, 
T. Anderson. 

N. ISLES. Hoy and other Islands of Orkney, T. Anderson. 

W. ISLES. N. Uist. Harris. Lewis. 

ULSTER. n 

CONN AUGHT- !> Not likely to be absent from all these provinces. 

LEINSTER. J 

MUNSTER. Clonmel, Cork, /. Sibbald. 

CHANNEL ISLES. Jersey. 

LASTKEA EILIX-MAS, Presl. 

One of our most common Eerns, dispersed over the whole of 
England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, and found in the 
Northern and Western Isles, and in Jersey. 



296 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS, 

The var. incisa has been reported or seen from Combe Mar- 
tin, Devonshire, C. C. Babington, B.S.E. ; Wiltshire ; Bridport, 
Dorsetshire, B.S.L. ; Sturry, Kent ; Eeigate, Virginia Water, 
Bagshot, May ford, St. Martha's near Guildford, and Button 
Park, Surrey ; Barnet, Hertfordshire ; King's Cliffe, North- 
amptonshire ; Cathcart hills near Glasgow, Lanarkshire ; Ben 
Chonzie mountain near Crieff, Perthshire ; Kingcausie, Kincar- 
dineshire, /. T. Syme. 

The var. abbreviata is recorded from Ingleborough, Yorkshire, 
6r. Pinder ; and Conistone, Lancashire, Miss Beever. 

At Rathronan, Cork, occurs a small forked variety somewhat 
resembling cristata. 

LASTREA FCENISECII, Watson. 

PENINSULA. Penzance ; St. Michael's mount ; Helston ; 
Lostwithiel ; Truro, and throughout Cornwall. Chamber- 
combe ; Ilfracombe ; Lynton ; Barristaple ; Clovelly, &c., 
Devonshire. Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Tunbridge Wells ; West Hoathly, Sussex. 

SEVERN . Herefordshire . 

N. WALES. Merionethshire. 

HUMBER. [Yorkshire.] 

TYNE . [Northumberland.] 

LAKES. St. Bee's head, Cumberland. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Baldovan, Kinnordy, Forfarshire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 297 

W. HIGHLANDS. Banks of Loch Lomond, Dumbartonshire. 
Wooded rocks between Brodick and Corrie, and between 
Lamlash and Whiting Bay, Arran, Dr. Balfour. 

N. ISLES. Hoy, Orkney, rather common, T. Anderson. 

W. ISLES. N. Uist, Dr. Balfour. 

ULSTER. Fairhead, Antrim. Near Coleraine ; Eushbrook ; 
Garvagh, Londonderry. Banks of Lough Svvilly ; Milroy 
bay ; Arregal hill near Donegal ; about Lough Derg, 
Donegal. 

CONNAUGHT. Sligo. Foot of Nephin ; Coraan Achill ; New- 
port ; Westport, &c., Mayo. About Clifden ; about Eound- 
stone and Ballynahinch ; near Oughterard, Galway. 

LEINSTER. Seven Churches, abundant, D. Moore, B. S. E. ; 
Glendalough, abundant and luxuriant, Wicklow. 

MUNSTER. Near Loop-head, Clare. Near Cork ; woods about 
Glengarriff ; Clonmel, /. Sibbald, Cork. On the mountains 
and in the woods of Kerry, especially about Killaraey, 
Dinis Island, Cromauglan, and O'Sullivan's cascade. 

LASTEEA OEEOPTEEIS, Presl. 

PENINSULA. Cornwall. Lynmouth, Devonshire. Near Keyn- 
sham, &c., Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. New Forest near Lyndhurst; near Southampton, 
Hampshire. Apse Castle, Isle of Wight. Dorsetshire. 
Wiltshire. Tilgate Forest ; Tunbridge Wells, and else- 
where, Sussex. 



298 HISTOKY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

THAMES. Bell wood, Bayford ; Tring ; Broxbourne, &c., 
Hertfordshire. Hampstead, Middlesex. Bexley ; Black- 
heath ; Bailey's hill between Brasted and Tunbridge, Kent. 
Witley ; Hindhead ; Cobham ; Wimbledon, and elsewhere, 
Surrey. Shotover hill, Oxfordshire. Hartwell, Bucking- 
hamshire. High Beech ; Little Baddow, A. Wallis, B.S.L., 
Essex. 

OUSE. Brad well, Suffolk, Near Crome, Norfolk, R. Wigliam, 
B.S.L. Fulbourne, Teversham, &c., Cambridgeshire. Dal- 
lington heath, Northamptonshire. 

SEVERN. Allesley; about Arbury Hall ; Coleshill heath; Cor- 
ley, Warwickshire. Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire, W. If. 
Purckas. Herefordshire. Malvern hills, Worcestershire, 
E. Lees, B.S.L. Staffordshire. Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Kadnorshire. Brecknockshire. Swansea. Glamor- 
ganshire, T. B. Flower, B.S.E. Carmarthenshire. Cardi- 
ganshire. 

N. WALES. Anglesea. Wrexham, Denbighshire. Flintshire. 
Dolgelly, Merionethshire, B.S.L. Near Llanberis and 
other parts of Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Near Twycross, Leicestershire. Kutland. Lincoln- 
shire. Oxton and Eddingley bogs, Nottinghamshire. De- 
thich moor ; Hiley, Derbyshire. 

MERSEY. Birkenhead and Oxton, Cheshire. Near Warrington ; 
Eochdale ; llainhill ; Gateacre, Lancashire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 299 

HUMBER. Valley of the Don, near Doncaster ; Melton wood 
near Adwick ; Escrick, near York ; Whitby ; Eichmond ; 
Halifax ; Everley near Scarborough, Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Chapel Weardale ; Cawsey Dean near Newcastle ; by 
the Tees, Durham. Northumberland. 

LAKES. Keswick ; near Lodore waterfall ; Patterdale, Cumber- 
land. Langdale and other parts of Westmoreland. 

W. LOWLANDS, Moffat dale, Dumfriesshire, P. Gray. La- 
narkshire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Ruberslaw, Roxburghshire. Pentland hills. 
Edinburgh. Dye at Longformacus ; Banks of Whiteadder, 
Berwickshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Ben Lomond, Stirlingshire. Clackmannan- 
shire. Kinross-shire. Glen Isla ; Clova mountains ; Sid- 
law hills, Eorfarshire. Craig Chailliach; by Loch Tay, 
Perthshire. Aberdeenshire. Moray shire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Argyleshire. Dumbartonshire. Isles of Islay 
and Cantyre. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Sutherlandshire. 

W. ISLES. N. Uist. 

ULSTER. Milroy bay, Donegal. Deny. 

CONNAUGHT. Lough Corril, Galway. 

LEINSTER. Glencree, 8. Foot, B.S.E. ; Seven Churches, D. 
Moore, B.S.E. ; Glendalough ; and Powerscourt, Wicklow. 

MUNSTER. Mangerton, Killarney, 8. P. Woodward, B.S.L., 
Kerry. 



300 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

LASTEEA EIGIDA, Presl. 

MERSEY. [Lancashire.] 

HUMBER. Ingleborough ; Wharnside ; Attermine rocks near 

Settle, Yorkshire. 
LAKES. Arnside Knot ; Hutton Eoof crags ; Farlton Knot, 

Westmoreland. Silverdale ; by the Lancaster and Kendal 

Canal, N. Lancashire. 

LASTEEA SPINULOSA, Presl. 

The habitats of this species are not recorded sufficiently dis- 
tinct from those of L. dilatata. 

PENINSULA. About Penzance, Cornwall. Devonshire. Somer- 
setshire. 

CHANNEL. Hampshire. Tinker's hole, Apse Castle, and else- 
where in the Isle of Wight. Dorsetshire. Tunbridge 
Wells, Sussex. 

THAMES. Ball's woods, Hertford ; N. Mimms ; Hatfield, &c., 
Herts. Chiselhurst; Canterbury, Sec., Kent. Middlesex. 
Wimbledon, * Portnall park, Virginia Water, &c., Surrey. 
Fulmer, Buckinghamshire. Epping ; Danbury ; Cogges- 
hall, Essex. 

OUSE. Suffolk. Surlingham broad near Norwich, Sec., Nor- 
folk. Eoulbourne, Cambridgeshire. Northamptonshire. 
SEVERN. North wood, Arbury Hall ; Binley ; Eugby, War- 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 301 

wickshire. Ankerberry hill, Forest of Dean (L. glandulosa), 
W. H. PurcJias, &c., Gloucestershire. The Horls near 
Boss, Herefordshire. Worcestershire. Needwood, Staf- 
fordshire. 

S. WALES. Brecknockshire. Glamorganshire. Carmarthen- 
shire. 

N. WALES. Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Paplewick ; Oxton bogs, Nottinghamshire. Nether- 
scall, Leicestershire, A. Bloxam, B.S.L. Derbyshire. 

MERSEY. Delamere Forest, Cheshire. Chat-moss ; Lowgill ; 
Eisley moss near Warrington, Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Sheffield ; Bichmond ; Ingleborough ; Doncaster ; 
Leckby Carr ; Terrington Carr, Yorkshire. 

TYNE. [?] 

LAKES. Eed-house, Cumberland. Westmoreland. Isle of Man. 

W. LOWLANDS. [Dumfriesshire, P. Gray.] 

E. LOWLANDS. [Edinburghshire.] 

E. HIGHLANDS. [Forfar shire.] 

W. HIGHLANDS. [Argyleshire.] 

N. HIGHLANDS. Dingwall, Boss-shire, W. C. Trevelyan. 

W. ISLES. North Uist. Harris. Lewis. 

LASTBEA THELYPTEBIS, Presl. 

PENINSULA. Devonshire. Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Portsea ; Winchester, Hampshire. West Medina ; 



302 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

Willderness ; Cridmore, &c., Isle of Wight. Tunbridge 
Wells ; Albourne ; Amberley ; Waterdown forest ; Ore near 
Hastings, Sussex. 

THAMES. North Cray; Bexley ; Ham ponds near Sandwich, 
Kent. Leith hill ; near Godalming ; Wimbledon common ; 
Pirbright common, Surrey. Windsor Park and Sonning- 
hill Wells, Berkshire. Epping; Little Baddow, Essex. 

OUSE. Belton; Bungay ; Hipton; Bradwell common, Suffolk. 
Horning; St. Faith's; Upton; Filby; Holt; Edgefield, 
Felthorpe ; Wroxham ; Dereham ; Lound near Yarmouth ; 
about Norwich, Norfolk. Wicken and Whittlesea fens ; 
Feversham moors ; Gamlingay, Cambridgeshire. Potton 
marshes, Bedfordshire. Huntingdonshire. 

SEVERN. [Formerly near Allesley, Warwickshire.] Hereford- 
shire. Staffordshire. Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Sketty bog; Cwmbola, Glamorganshire. 

N. WALES. Llwydiart lake, Pentraeth ; Beaumaris, Anglesea. 
[Near Llanberis, Carnarvonshire.] 

TRENT. Oxton and Bullwell bogs, Nottinghamshire. [Leices- 
tershire.] 

MERSEY. Newchurch bog ; Knutsford moor ; Over ; Wybun- 
bury bog ; Harnicroft wood near Wernith, Cheshire. 

HUMBER. Potterie Carr ; Askham bog ; Terrington Carr ; 
Buttercrambe near York ; Heslington ; Doncaster ; Settle ; 
Fens at Askern, Yorkshire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 303 

TYNE. Lear mouth bogs, Northumberland. 

LAKES. Keswick ; Ulleswater ; Glencoin, Cumberland. [Ha- 

mersham bog, Westmoreland.] 
E. HIGHLANDS. Eescobie ; Eestenet, Forfarshire. 
N. ISLES. [Shetland.] 
ULSTER. Portmore park by Lough Neagh, Antrim ; Boggy 

wood at Portumna, Galway, I). Moore. 
CONNAUGHT. Near Lough Carra, Mayo. 
LEINSTER. Marshes at Glencree, Wicklow. 
MUNSTEE. Marsh near Mucruss, Killarney, Kerry. 

OPHIOGLOSSUM VULGATUM, Linnceus. 

PENINSULA. Cornwall. Slateford ; Barnstaple, Devonshire. 
Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Strathfieldsaye ; Stoke ; Wanston, Hampshire. 
Bembridge down ; Blackgang Chine ; West Cowes, &c., 
Isle of Wight. Box, Dorsetshire. Long-leat, Wiltshire. 
Highlands, Eramfield, &c., Sussex. 

THAMES. Bury woods, Hitchin; Elstree; Essenden, and 
other parts of Hertfordshire. Hackney marshes ; Sion 
lane, Isleworth ; Osterley Park, Brentford ; near Turnham 
Green, Middlesex. West Farleigh ; Greenhithe, &c., Kent. 
Compton ; Beddington ; Cobham ; Keigate ; Dorking, Sec., 
Surrey. Banbury, Oxfordshire. Essex. 

OUSE. Suffolk. Upton broad; Ellingham fen, &c., Norfolk. 



304 HISTORY OP BRITISH FEENS. 

Wilburton ; Grant Chester ; Whit well, Cambridgeshire. 
Bedfordshire. Huntingdonshire. 

SEVEEN. Foleshill; Wellesbourne, &c., Warwickshire. Glou- 
cestershire. Howie hill, Ross; West Hope hill; Upton 
Bishop, &c., Herefordshire. Needwood, Staffordshire. 
West Felton, Shropshire. 

N. WALES. Anglesea. Wrexham, Denbighshire. 

TRENT. Near Braunston ; Thringston ; Humberstone, Leices- 
tershire. Paplewick ; Colwick, Nottinghamshire. Heanor ; 
Breadsall, Derbyshire. 

MEESEY. Alderley, Cheshire. Warrington ; Bidston marsh, 
&c., Lancashire. 

HUMBEE. Eichmond ; Settle ; Whitby ; Huddersfield, &c., 
Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Middleton, Durham. Hexham ; Hawthorn Dene ; 
Halt whistle, Northumberland. 

LAKES. Westmoreland. Cumberland. 

W. LOWLANDS. Kircudbrightshire. Lanarkshire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Coldstream, Berwickshire. Dalmeny and Ar- 
niston woods, Edinburgh. Linlithgowshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Dunfermline, Fifeshire, G. M'Nab, B.S.E. 
Dunsinnane, Perthshire. Forfarshire. Burghead, Moray- 
shire, G. Wilson, B.S.E. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Argyleshire. 

N. ISLES. Orkney. Shetland. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 305 

ULSTER. Knockagh, Carrickfergus ; near Belfast, Antrim. 

CONN AUGHT. Arran Isles, Galway. 

LEINSTER. Holly Park, Dublin, S. Foot, B.S.E. ; Dunsinsk, 

Dublin. 
MUNSTER. Clonmel, Cork, " found several years since by Mr. 

R. Davis." 



OSMUNDA KEGALIS, Linnaus. 

PENINSULA. Common in the low boggy parts of Cornwall. 
Dawlish ; Watermouth near Ilfracombe ; Holme Chase 
near Ashburton, Devonshire. Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Frequent in the west of Hampshire. Isle of Wight. 
Isle of Piirbeck, Dorsetshire, T. B. Salter, B.S.E. Wilt- 
shire. Tunbridge ; U ckfield ; Buxton Park, Sussex. 

THAMES. [Formerly on Hampstead Heath, Middlesex.] 
Thursley ; Hindhead ; Hambledon heath ; Ca?,sar's Camp, 
Farnham ; Chobham ; Bagshot ; Frimley ; Esher ; Wim- 
bledon ; Dorking ; Eeigate, //. M. Holmes, B.S.L., Sur- 
rey. Berkshire. Buckinghamshire. Great Warley and 
Little Warley ; Little Baddow ; Epping, Essex. 

OUSE. Suffolk. Caistor near Yarmouth, D. Stock, B.S.L. ; 
Horning ferry, W. J. West, B.S.L. [Gamlingay, Cam- 
bridgeshire.] Bedfordshire. 

SEVERN. Arbury ; Birmingham, and elsewhere, Warwickshire. 

x 



306 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

Worcestershire. Staffordshire. Ellesmere Lakes ; West 
Felton, Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Swansea, Glamorganshire, G. Lawson ; Fishguard, 
Pembrokeshire, E. Lees, B.S.L. Carmarthenshire. 

N. WALES. Anglesea. Denbighshire. Barmouth ; Tails of the 
Cynvael near Festiniog, Merionethshire. Loughton bog, 
Flintshire, Dr. Bidwell, B.S.K Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Leicestershire. Mansfield ; Bullwell, Nottinghamshire. 

MERSEY. Lindon moss near Mobberley, Cheshire. Speke 
near Liverpool ; Chat moss ; Woolston moss, and else- 
where near Warrington ; Poulton le Sand, Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Pottery Carr, near Doncaster ; Leeds ; Askham bog ; 
Whitby ; York, and other parts of Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Durham. Northumberland. 

LAKES. Windermere, T. Hi/lands, B.S.L. ; Col with, H. Ford- 
ham, B.S.L. , Westmoreland. Cumberland. Isle of Man. 

W. LOWLANDS. By the Manse, or White Loch, Colvend, Kir- 
cudbrightshire, P. Gray. By the Clyde, Lanarkshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Stirlingshire. Fifeshire. Kincardineshire. 
Culross, Perthshire. Arbroath, G. Lawson ; Montrose ; 
Kinnaird, &c., Forfarshire. Mill of Leys, G.Dickie, B.S.K, 
and elsewhere, Aberdeenshire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Glen Finnart; Dunoon; Loch Fine, N.E. of 
Iriveravy, Argyleshire. By Loch Lomond, Dumbarton- 
shire. Isles of Arran, Bute, Mull, and Islay. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 307 

N. HIGHLANDS. Inchnedamff, Sutherlandshire. Boss-shire. 

N. ISLES. Shetland. 

W. TSLES. N. Uist. Harris. Lewis. 

CONNAUGHT. Abundant in Connemara ; Oughterard, Galway. 

Achill Island. Castlebar ; Mayo. 
LEINSTER. Kelly's Glen, co. Dublin. 
MUNSTER. Bandon ; Clonmel, frequent, /. Sibbald, Cork. 

Letterfrack near Ballinaskellig's Bay ; Mucruss Abbey, 

Killarney, Kerry. 
CHANNEL ISLES. Jersey. 

POLYPODIUM ALPESTEE, Sprengel. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Mountains near Dalwhinnie, Inverness-shire, 
1841, H. C. Watson. Canlochen glen, Forfarshire, 1844, 
H. C. Watson. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Great Corrie of Ben Aulder, Inverness-shire, 
1841, H. C. 



POLYPODIUM CALCAEEUM, Smith. 

PENINSULA. Bath; Cheddar cliffs; Mendip hills; Friary 

wood ; Hinton Abbey, Somersetshire. 
CHANNEL. Box quarries; Corsham, Dr. Alexander, B.S.E. 

Wiltshire. 

THAMES. Oxfordshire. 
SEVERN. Besborough common, W. H. Purckas; rocks by the 



308 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

Wye, near Symond's Yat, and Colwall near Whitchurch ; 
Lydbrook in the Forest of Dean ; Windlass hill near Chel- 
tenham ; Cleave-cloud ; Postlip hill on the Cotswolds ; 
Cirencester, J. BucJcman ; English Bicknor, A. T. Willmot ; 
Leigh wood near Bristol, Gloucestershire. Herefordshire 
(planted). Worcestershire. Staffordshire. 

S. WALES. Merthyr-Tydvil, Glamorganshire. 

N. WALES. Llanferris, Denbighshire. [Cwm-Idwal, Carnarvon- 
shire.] 

TRENT. Matlock ; Buxtori ; Bakewell, T. Butler, Derbyshire. 

MERSEY. Lancaster; Shed din-dough near Barnley; Broad- 
bank, Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Ingleborough; near Settle; Anster rocks; Arncliffe; 
Gordale; Ravenscar, Waldenhead, /. TFard, B.S.U., York- 
shire. 

TYNE. Falcon Glints, Durham, T. Simpson. 

LAKES. Newbiggin wood; Gelt quarries ; Baron heath, Cum- 
berland. Scout near Kendal ; Arnside knot ; Hutton roof; 
Farlton knot ; Caskill kirk, Westmoreland. 

POLYPODIUM DEYOPTEEIS, Unnaus. 

PENINSULA. Mendip hills ; near Bristol ; near Bath, Somer- 
setshire. 

CHANNEL. [Petersfield, Hampshire, Dr. Bromfield.'] 
THAMES. Cornbury quarry, Oxfordshire. Essex. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 309 

SEVERN. Berkswell, Warwickshire. Forest of Dean, Gloucester- 
shire. Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire. Penyard park near 
Boss; near Downton castle, by the Teme; Aymestree 
quarry ; Shobden-hill woods, Herefordshire. Malvern hills ; 
Shrawley wood, Worcestershire. Trentham park ; near Cot- 
ton hall and Oakamoor ; Needwood, Staffordshire. Titter- 
stone Glee hill ; Whitcliffe near Ludlow ; Froddesley hill, 
Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Craig-Pwll-du, Eadnorshire. Brecon ; Trecastle ; 
Pont Henryd, near Capel Colboen ; Ystrad Felltree, Breck- 
nockshire, Pont Nedd-Vechn ; Scwd-y-Gladis ; Merthyr- 
Tydvil, Glamorganshire. Ponterwyd ; Hafod, /". Riley, 
B.S.E., &c., Cardiganshire. 

N.WALES. Angiesea. Llangollen, Denbighshire. Craig- 
Breidden ; Ph'nlymmon, Montgomeryshire. Merioneth- 
shire. Near St. Asaph, Flintshire. Cwm-Idwal ; Llanberis ; 
Bangor ; Ehaidr-y-Wenol, Twll-du, Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Chinley hill near Chapel-le-Frith; Pleasley forges, 
Derbyshire. Lincolnshire. 

MERSEY. Hill Cliff, Cheshire. Warrington; Broadbank near 
Colne; Dean-church Clough; Mere Clough; Cotteril Clough; 
Lancaster; Ashworth wood, &c., Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Burley ; Brimham rocks ; Thirsk ; Ingleborough ; 
Eeivaulx wood ; Teesdale ; Halifax ; Whitby ; Richmond ; 
Settle, J.Talkam, B.S.L.; Brierley; Castle Howard park, 
and many other parts of Yorkshire. 



310 HTSTOEY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

TYNE. Walbottle Dene; foot of the Cheviot, near Langley 
ford, Durham. Morpeth ; Hexham ; Shewing Shields ; 
Scotswood Dene, Northumberland. 

LAKES. Lodore near Keswick; Borrowdale; Calder bridge; 
Wasdale; Scale force; Gillsland, Cumberland. Amble- 
side, Hutton roof; Casterton, &c., Westmoreland. Coni- 
stone, N. Lancashire. 

W. LOWLANDS. Drumlanrig ; Maiden Bower craigs, &c., Dum- 
friesshire. Cluden craigs ; hills above Dalscairth, Kircud- 
brightshire, P. Gray. Tails of the Clyde; Calderwood, 
T. B. Bell, B.S.E., Lanarkshire. Gourock, Eenfrewshire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Wanchope, lloxburghshire, W. Scott, B.S.E. 
Banks of the Whiteadder; Longformacus, Berwickshire. 
Hosslyn and Auchindenny woods, and elsewhere about 
Edinburgh. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Clackmannanshire. Kinross-shire. Garden den, 
Eifeshire, R. MaugJian, B.S.E. Culross ; Ben Lawers ; 
Killin; Dalnacardoch ; Killicrankie, H. B. M. Harris, 
B.S.E. ; Perthshire. Sidlaw hills ; Clova mountains ; 
Clack of the Ballock, L. Carnegie, B.S.E. Eorfarshire. 
Inglies Maldie, Kincardineshire, A. Croall, B.S.E. Braemar, 
Aberdeenshire. Cawdor woods, Nairnshire, /. M'Nab, 
B.S.E. Dalwhinnie, Morayshire. 

AY. HIGHLANDS. Ereuch Corrie, Strath Affarie, W. Inverness- 
shire. By Loch Lomond ; Ben Voirlich, Dumbartonshire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 311 

Between Lochs Awe and Etive ; Brodick ; Dunoon, Argyle- 

shire. Isle of Arran. Tobermorey, Isle of Mull, W. Christy, 

B.S.E. 
N. HIGHLANDS. Ross-shire. Ferry house E. of Loch Erboll } 

Sutherlandshire. 
ULSTER, Knockleyd, Antrim, very rare. Mourne mountains, 

Down. 

CONNAUGHT. Mam Turk, Galway. 
MUNSTER. Mucruss, Killarney, Kerry. 

POLYPODIUM PHEGOPTERIS, Linnau*. 

PENINSULA. Near Tintagel, Cornwall. Sheep's tor ; Dartmoor ; 
Ilfracombe ; Becky falls, &c., Devonshire. 

CHANNEL. Forest row, Sussex. 

THAMES. [Near Brentford, Middlesex.] [Norwood, Surrey.] 

SEVERN. Forest of Dean; near Lydbrook, Gloucestershire. 
Shobden hill woods ; Aymestree quarry, Herefordshire. 
Ridge hill ; Madeley, &c., Staffordshire. Titterstone Glee 
hill ; near Ludlow, Shropshire. 

S.WALES. Craig-Pwll-du ; Rhayader, Radnorshire. Pont 
Henryd near Capel Colboen ; Brecon beacon, Sec., Breck- 
nockshire. Pont Nedd Vechn ; Scwd-y-Gladis ; Cilhepste, 
Glamorganshire. Glynhir, near Llandebie, Camarthenshire. 
Hafod, &c., Cardiganshire. 

N. WALES. Plinlymmon, Montgomeryshire. Falls of the Cyn- 



312 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

vael near Festiniog; Barmouth, &c., Merionethshire. 

Llanrwst, Denbighshire. Cwm-Idvval; Llanberis; Aber- 

glaslyn; Bangor, &c., Carnarvonshire, 
TRENT. Buxton, Derbyshire. 
MERSEY. Werneth, &c., Cheshire. Dean-church Clough, near 

Bolton ; near Todmorden ; Philips wood, near Prestwich ; 

Blackhay, Clitheroe, &c., Lancashire. 
HUMBER. Halifax; Beckdale Helrasley; Buttercrambe moor 

near York; Settle; Sheffield; Ingleborough ; and many 

other parts of Yorkshire. 
TYNE. By the Tees above Middleton ; rocks above Langley 

ford ; Cawsey Dene, &c., Durham. Moors near Wallington ; 

Shewing Shields ; Cheviot hills ; Hexham, Northumber- 
land. 
LAKES. Wardale; Borrowdale; Ennerdale; Scaw-fell; Kes- 

wick ; Tindall fell, &c., Cumberland. Ambleside ; Gras- 

mere; Casterton fell; Hutton roof, &c., Westmoreland. 

Conistone, N. Lancashire. Isle of Man. , 
W. LOWLANDS. Drumlanrig ; Rae hills ; Jardine hall, Dumfries- 
shire. Dalscairth ; Mabie, Kircudbrightshire, P. Gray. 

Gourock, Renfrewshire. Falls of the Clyde ; Calderwood ; 

Crutherland ; Campsie near Glasgow ; Corra Lyn, &c., 

Lanarkshire. 
E, LOWLANDS. Berwickshire. Jedburgh ; Ruberslaw, Eox- 

burghshire. Pentland hills ; Arniston ; Hosslyn, and Auch- 
indenny woods, near Edinburgh. 



LOCAL DIST1UBUTION. 313 

E. HIGHLANDS. Castle Campbell, near Dollar, Clackmannan- 
shire, /. T. Syme, B.S.E. Dunfermline; Inverkeithing ; 
Garden den, Fifeshire. Kincardineshire. Glen Queich in 
the Ochils ; Ben Lawers ; Dalnacardoch ; Tyndrum ; Killin ; 
Bridge of Brackland, near Callender ; Craig Chailliach, Loch 
Tay, &c., Perthshire. Canlochen, Clova, Forfarshire. Cas- 
tleton, Braemar, Aberdeenshire. Dalwhinnie, Moray shire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Aberarder; Ben Nevis; Eed Caird hill, &c., 
W. Inverness-shire. Dunoon ; Crinnan ; Inverary ; pass of 
Glencroe, &c., Argyleshire. BenVoirlich; by Loch Lomond; 
Tarbet; Arroquher, Sic., Dumbartonshire. Isles of Mull, 
Islay, and Cantyre. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Kessock, Eoss-shire. Perry-house E. of Loch 
Erboll, Sutherland. Morven, Caithness, rare, T. Anderson. 

N. ISLES. Hoy, Orkney, T. Anderson. North Marm, Shetland. 

ULSTER. By the Glenarve, near Cushendall, and other parts of 
Antrim. Waterfall above Lough Esk, Donegal. Slieve 
Bignian ; near Slieve Croob ; Black mountain, Down. Ness 
glen, Londonderry. 

LEINSTER. Carlingford mountain, Louth. Powerscourt water- 
fall, Wicklow. 

MUNSTER. Between Killarney and Kenmare; Mucruss, Kerry. 

POLYPODIUM VULGAEE, Lmnceus. 
This is one of our most common Ferns, dispersed throughout 



314 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

the United Kingdom and Ireland, and found in Jersey, and in the 

Western Isles, N. Uist, Harris, and Lewis. The varieties only are 

enumerated below ; cambricum ? is intended for the Irish form, so 

called, which appears distinct from the true cambricum. 

PENINSULA. Torquay, Devonshire (var. ? cambricum). Ched- 
dar cliffs, Somersetshire (var. ? cambricum). 

CHANNEL. Bonchurch, Isle of Wight (var. ? cambricum). 

THAMES. Kent (var. serratum). Surrey (var. serratum). 

SEVERN. Warwickshire (var. serratum). Whitchurch and 
Mordiford (var. serratum) ; Goodrich Castle, Eoss, E. T. 
Bennett (var. ? cambricum), Herefordshire. Malvern, Wor- 
cestershire (var. serratum). 

N. WALES. The var. cambricum in various parts of N. Wales. 

W. LOWLANDS. Kircudbrightshire (var. serratum). 

E. LOWLANDS. Braid hill near Edinburgh (var. cambricum). 

CONNAUGHT. Amin Isles (var. ? cambricum). 

LEINSTER. Wood near the Dargle, Wicklow (var. ? cambricum). 

MUNSTER. Killarney, Kerry (var.? cambricum). 

CHANNEL ISLES. [Guernsey : var. ? cambricum^] 

POLYSTICHUM ACULEATUM, Roth. 

PENINSULA. Cornwall. Lynmouth ; between Totness and 
Ashburton, &c. (with lobatum), Devonshire. Portishead, 
&c. (with lobatum), Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Selborne, Miss Bower (with lobatum, T. B. Salter) ; 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 315 

Alresford, &c,, Hampshire. Isle of Wight (with lobatum). 
Dorsetshire. Box quarries, Wiltshire (with lobatum, as 
loncJdtidioides) . Henfield ; Groombridge (lobatum), Sussex. 

THAMES. St. Albans; Totteridge; Hitchin; Essendon, &c., 
Hertfordshire. Middlesex. Kent (with lobatum). May- 
ford and Dorking (lobatum) ; and elsewhere (with lobatum), 
Surrey. Chalfont (lobatum):, Fulmer, Buckinghamshire. 
Berkshire (with lobatum). Oxfordshire (with lobatum). 
Near Ongar ; Brentwood ; Chingford, and Black Notley 
(lobatum) , Essex. 

OUSE. Sudbury, &c. (with lobatum), Suffolk. Yarmouth (lo- 
batum) ; Edgefield near Holt, Norfolk. Gamlingay, Cam- 
bridgeshire. Bedfordshire. Northamptonshire (lobatum). 

SEVERN. Stoneleigh ; Allesley ; Hollyberry end and Wyken 
lane (all with lobatum), and elsewhere, Warwickshire. 
Herefordshire (lobatum as loncUtidioides) . Near Bristol, 
Gloucestershire (with lobatum). Knightwick, Worcester- 
shire, E. Lees, B.8.L. Staffordshire (lobatum as loncMti- 
dioides). Mannington near Cherbury, Shropshire (lobatum 
as loncJiitidioides) . 

S. WALES. Tenby, Pembrokeshire, JEJ. Lees, B.S.L. Carmar- 
thenshire. Glamorganshire (lobatum). 

N. WALES. Anglesea (with lobatum). Wrexham, Denbighshire 
(lobatum). Llyn-y-Cwm, Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Leicestershire (with lobatum). Mansfield ; Paplewick, 



316 HISTORY OP BRITISH FEKNS. 

Nottinghamshire (with lobatum). Matlock, Derbyshire 

(with lobatum). Lincolnshire (lobatum). 
MERSEY. Gateacre near Liverpool ; Hail wood (with lobatum), 

&c., Lancashire. Prenston, Cheshire (with lobatum). 
HUMBER. Halifax ; Castle Howard woods ; Eichmond ; Stud- 
ley ; Eoche Abbey, G. F. Young, B.S.L. ; Settle ; Eipon ; 

Doncaster ; York ; Ingleborough (in most instances with 

lobatum), Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Hexham and Scotswood Denes, Northumberland (lo- 
batum). Cawsey Dene, &c. (with lobatum), Durham, R. 

Bowman, B.S.L. 
LAKES. Airey Force, H.Fordham, B.S.L., &c. (with lobatum), 

Cumberland. Westmoreland. 
W. LOWLANDS. Drumlanrig ; Nithsdale ; and other parts of 

Dumfriesshire (with lobatuin), P. Gray. Kircudbrightshire 

(with lobatum), P. Gray. Eenfrewshire. Lanarkshire 

(with lobatum). 
E. LOWLANDS. Edinburgh shire (with lobatwn). Pease Bridge, 

&c., Berwickshire (with lobatuni). 
E. HIGHLANDS. Glen Phee, Clova mountains, and other parts 

of Eorfarshire (lobatuni). St. David's Fifeshire, B.S.E. 

Glenfarq near Perth, Perthshire. Kincardineshire (lobatuni). 

Aberdeenshire (lobatum). Morayshire (lobatum). 
W. HIGHLANDS. Isles of Islay (with lobatum) and Cantyre 

(with lobatum). 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 317 

N. HIGHLANDS. Ross-shire (lobatum). 

ULSTER. Glen Colin (with lobatum), Malone (with lobatum as 

loncJiitidioides) , Belfast, Antrim. 
CHANNEL ISLES. Jersey. 

POLYSTICHUM ANGULARE, Presl. 

PENINSULA. Lynmouth ; between Totness and Ashburton, 

Devonshire. Near Bath, Somersetshire. 
CHANNEL. Stubbington ; Uplands ; Cattisfield, and elsewhere, 

Hampshire. Isle of Wight. Dorsetshire. Wiltshire. 

Patching ; Findon, &c., Sussex. 
THAMES. Panshanger ; Hatfield Wood side ; Colney ; Watford ; 

Totteridge, Hertfordshire. Sturry, and elsewhere, Kent. 

St. Martha's, near Guildford, Surrey. Epping, /. Ray, 

B.S.L.', Springfield, Essex. 
OUSE. Norfolk. Huntingdonshire. 

SEVEEN. Bristol ; Forest of Dean, E. Lees, B.S.L., Glouces- 
tershire, H. K. Tkwaites, B.S.L. Stoneleigh ; Berkeswell ; 

Hearsall, &c., Warwickshire. Ross, Herefordshire. Eartham, 

Worcestershire, E. Lees, B.S.L. Staffordshire. Shropshire. 
S. WALES. Tenby, Pembrokeshire, E. Lees, B.S.L. Gower, 

Glamorganshire, C. Conway, B.S.L, Cardiganshire. 
N. WALES. Conway, Carnarvonshire. Denbighshire. 
TRENT. Matlock, Derbyshire. Leicestershire. 
MERSEY. Prescott ; Hail wood, Lancashire. Cheshire. 



318 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

HUMBER. Edlington Crags, near Adwick ; Roche Abbey, /. F. 

Young, B.S.L. ; Halifax, R. Leyland y B.S.L. ; Bichmond ; 

Heckfall woods ; Elland, and other parts of Yorkshire. 
LAKES. Loughrigg Pell; Ambleside, Westmoreland. Isle of 

Man. 

E. LOWLANDS. Peasebridge, Berwickshire. 
ULSTER. Blackstaff lane ; Colin Glen, Belfast, Antrim. 
CONNAUGHT. Arran Isles, Galway. 
LEINSTER. Tinnahinch, Wicklow, (7. C. Babington, B.S.E. 
MUNSTER. Clonmel, Cork, J. Sibbald. 
CHANNEL ISLES. Jersey. 

POLYSTICHUM LONCHITIS, Roth. 

OUSE. [Cambridgeshire.] [Northamptonshire.] 

S. WALES. [Glamorganshire.] 

N. WALES. Clogwyn-y-Garnedd ; Cwm-Idwal; Twll-du; Gly- 

der-Yawr ; above Llanberis, Carnarvonshire. 
HUMBER. Langcliffe near Settle ; Attermine Scar ; Giggleswick, 

Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Palcon Glints, Teesdale ; Mazebeck Scar, Durham. 
LAKES . [C umbeiiand .] 
W. LOWLANDS. [Lanarkshire.] 
E. HIGHLANDS. Ben Lomond, Stirlingshire, F. Bossey, B.S.L. 

Ben Lawers ; Craig Challiach ; Glen Lyon, G. Lawson ; Ben 

Chonzie near Crieff, Dr. Balfour, B.S.E. Perthshire, 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 319 

Canlochen ; Glen Isla ; Glen Phee ; Glen Dole, Sec., in the 
Clova mountains, Forfarshire. Aberdeenshire. Moray- 
shire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Ben Voirlich, Dumbartonshire. Mountains 
near Loch Erricht, Inverness-shire. Ben More, Isle of Mull. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Raven rock near Castle Leod, Boss-shire. 
Ben Hope, B.S.E. ; Assynt, Sutherlandshire. 

N. ISLES. Hoy-hill, Orkney (1,600 feet), very rare, T. Anderson. 

ULSTER. Glen E. of Lough Eske ; Eosses and Thanet moun- 
tain passes, Donegal. 

CON NAUGHT. Glenade mountain, Leitrim. Ben Bulben, Sligo. 

MUNSTER. Brandon mountain, Kerry. 

PTERIS AQUILESTA, Linnaw. 

The most common of our Ferns, dispersed over the whole 
of England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland; ascending to an 
elevation of 1,470 feet. It is also common in the Orkneys ; 
and is found in the Hebridean Islands of N. Uist, Harris, 
and Lewis. 

SCOLOPENDRIUM VULGARE, Symons. 

PENINSULA. Cornwall. Devonshire. Nettlecombe (var. poly- 
scUdes, and Sir W. C. Trevelyans var.), &c., Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Fareham (vars. undulatum and jpolysckides), Hamp- 
shire. Isle of Wight. Sussex. Dorsetshire. Wiltshire. 



320 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

THAMES. Hertfordshire. Middlesex. Kent. Surrey. Berk- 
shire. Buckinghamshire. Oxfordshire. Essex. 

OUSE. Suffolk. Norfolk. Cambridgeshire. Bedfordshire. 
Huntingdonshire. Northamptonshire. 

SEVERN. Warwickshire. Gloucestershire. Herefordshire. Wor- 
cestershire. Staffordshire. Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Brecknockshire. Pembrokeshire. Glamorganshire. 
Carmarthenshire . 

N. WALES. Anglesea. Denbighshire. Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Leicestershire. Nottinghamshire. Derbyshire. 

MERSEY. Cheshire. Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Yorkshire (with var. undulatum). 

TYNE. Northumberland. Durham. 

LAKES. Cumberland. Westmoreland. Isle of Man. 

W. LOWLANDS. Dumfriesshire. Kir cudbright shire. Wigton- 
shire. Ayrshire. Eenfrewshire. Lanarkshire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Edinburghshire. Berwickshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Eifeshire. Eorfarshire. Kincardineshire. 
Aberdeenshire. Nairnshire. Morayshire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Argyleshire. Isles of Islay, Cantyre, and 
Skye. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Sutheiiandshire. 

N. ISLES. Isles of Bowsay, Orkney, rare, E. Heddell. Shet- 
land. 

CONNAUGHT. Galway. Arran Isles. Sligo. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 321 

LEINSTER. Dublin. 
MUNSTER. Cork. Kerry. 
CHANNEL ISLES. Jersey. 

TEICHOMANES BADICANS, Swartz. 

HUMBEE. [Supposed to have been formerly found at Bellbank, 
near Bingley, Yorkshire.] 

LEINSTER. Hermitage glen ; Powerscourt waterfall, Wicklow. 

MUNSTER. Glendine wood, and Glenbour, Killeagh, near 
Toughal ; Temple Michael glen, and Ballinhasy glen, near 
Cork. Turk waterfall, Killarney ; ravine of Cromaglaun 
mountain ; Mount Eagle, near Dingle ; Gortagaree ; Black- 
stones in Glen Caragh ; Inveragh ; Curraan lake, Water- 
ville, C. C. Babington, B.S.E., Kerry. 

WOODSIA HYPEKBOBEA, R. Rrown. 

N. WALES. Clogwyn-y-Gamedd, Snowdon, Carnarvonshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Ben Chonzie, near Crieif, Dr.BalfoM", Catja- 
ghiammaii, Ben Lawers ; Mael-dun-Crosk ; Craig Challiach, 
Perthshire. Glen Isla, Dr. Balfour ; Glen Phee, Clova 
mountains, Dr. Balfour, Forfar shire. 

WOODSIA ILYENSIS, R. Brown. 

N. WALES. Clogwynn-y-Garnedd ; Llyn-y-cwm, on Glyder 
Vawr, (Carnarvonshire. 

Y 



322 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

HUMBER. [Yorkshire.] 

TYNE. Falcon Glints, and Cauldron Snout, Teesdale, Durham. 

LAKES. Westmoreland. 

W. LOWLANDS. Devil's Beef-tub, and hills north of Moffat, 
P. Gray. Hills dividing Dumfries and Peeblesshires, abun- 
dant, W. Stevens. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Ben Chonzie, near Crieff, Perthshire, Dr. Bal- 
four. Glen Phee, Clova mountains, Forfarshire, /. Back- 



LYCOPODIUM ALPINUM, Linnaeus. 

PENINSULA. Somerset, A. Southby. 

CHANNEL. Hampshire. 

SEVERN. [Shropshire.] 

S. WALES. Brecon beacon, Brecknockshire. Glamorganshire. 
Plinlymmon, Cardiganshire. 

N.WALES. Flintshire. Denbighshire. Llanidloes, Mont- 
gomeryshire. Cader Idris, Merionethshire. Cwm-Idwal ; 
Glyder Yawr ; Carnedd David, Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Derbyshire. 

MERSEY. Micklehurst, Cheshire. Todmorden ; Fo-edge ; 
Mottram ; Cliviger, Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Ingleborough ; Sowerby ; Cronckley Fell ; Scar- 
borough, Sec., Yorkshire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 323 

TYNE. Falcon Glints, and elsewhere in Teesdale, Durham. 
S.E. of Crag lake ; Cheviot, Northumberland. 

LAKES. Kirkston, and other parts of Westmoreland. Great 
Gable ; Ennerdale, and other parts of Cumberland. Coni- 
stone, N. Lancashire. 

W. LOWLANDS. Hills W. of the vale of Dumfries. Hills above 
Dalscairth, Kircudbrightshire. Eenfrewshire. Lanark- 
shire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Roxburghshire. Lammermuirs ; Lambertori 
moor, Berwickshire. Pentland hills, Edinburgh. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Clackmannanshire. Kinross-shire. Fifeshire. 
Ben Lawers ; Blair Athol ; Killin, &c., Perthshire. Sidlaw 
hills ; Glen Dole and Glen Phee, Clova, &c., Forfarshire. 
Bay of Nigg, Kincardineshire. Invercauld, Sec., Aber- 
deenshire (3,600 feet). Badenoch, Morayshire. Banff- 
shire. Nairn shire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Freuch Corrie, Strath Affarie; Ben Nevis 
(3,450 feet), &c., W. Inverness-shire. Ben Voirlich, Dum- 
bartonshire. Ben More ; Tobermorey, Isle of Mull ; and 
other islands of the Inner Hebrides. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Ross-shire. Ben Hope (3,000 feet), Suther- 
land. Morven, Caithness, T. Anderson. 

N. ISLES. Hoy, Orkney, common, T. Anderson. L T nst, Shet- 
land. 

W. ISLES. Langa, Harris, Dr. Balfour. 



324 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

ULSTER. Belfast mountains, Antrim. Aghla ; Barnesmoor ; 

Muckish, Donegal. Mourne mountains. Down. 
MUNSTER. Mangerton ; Bandon, Kerry. 

LYCOPODIUM ANNOTINUM, linnets. 

N. WALES. Glyder-Vawr, above Llyn-y-cwm, Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Chamwood forest, Leicestershire, A. Bloxam. 

MERSEY. Eumworth moss, Lancashire, R. Withers. 

TYNE. [Teesdale, Durham.] 

LAKES. Bowfell, Cumberland, H. E. Smith. Langdale, West- 
moreland, R. Rolleston. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Mountains of Perthshire, Aberdeenshire, 
Morayshire, and BanfFshire ; as Loch-na-gar, Munth Keane, 
Ben-na-Baird, and the Cairngorm mountains (elev. 1,500- 
2,550 feet). Glen Dole; Clova mountains; by Loch Esk, 
Forfar shire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. French Corrie, Strath Affarie, West Inverness- 
shire. Goat Fell, Isle of Arran. Isle of Mull. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Freevater, Eoss-shire. 

N. ISLES. Hoy hill; Eackwick, J. T. Syme, Orkney. 

LYCOPODIUM CLAYATUM, Linnaus. 

PENINSULA. Exmoor, Devonshire. Brendon hill, and elsewhere, 
Somersetshire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 325 

CHANNEL. Hampshire. Dorsetshire. Wiltshire. Tilgate 
forest, Sussex. 

THAMES. Tring, Hertfordshire. Hampstead, Middlesex. High- 
down heath ; Caesar's Camp, Farnham ; Woking common ; 
between Dorking and Leith hill; Addington hills, Croydon; 
and other parts of Surrey. Oxfordshire. [High Beech, 
Essex.] 

OUSE. Norfolk. Gamlingay, Cambridgeshire. Bedfordshire. 

SEVERN. [Coleshill, Warwickshire.] Worcestershire. Staf- 
fordshire. Stiperstone, Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Glamorganshire. Plmlymmon, Cardiganshire. 

N. WALES. Cader Idris, Merionethshire. Denbighshire. Snow- 
don, Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Charnwood forest, Leicestershire. Nottinghamshire. 
Denbighshire. 

MERSEY. Todmorden ; Simmons-wood Moss, Lancashire. 
Cheshire. 

HUMBER. Frequent in the N. and W. Eidings of Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Northumberland. Durham. 

LAKES. Mountains of Cumberland. Langdale, Westmoreland. 

W. LOWLANDS. Dumfriesshire. Kir cudbright shire. Renfrew- 
shire. Lanarkshire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Peeblesshire. Roxburghshire. Pentland hills, 
Edinburghshire, Berwickshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Clackmannanshire. Kinross-shire. Fifeshire. 



326 HISTORY OP BRITISH FERNS. 

Clova mountains, Forfarshire. Perthshire. Aberdeen- 
shire. Mortlach, Banffshire. Badenoch, Morayshire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. W. Inverness-shire. Argyleshire. Dumbarton- 
shire. Tobermorey, Isle of Mull. 

N. HIGHLANDS, Ben Wy vis, Eoss-shire. Sutherlandshire. Mor- 
ven, Caithness, T. Anderson. 

N. ISLES. Hoy and Eowsay, Orkney. [Shetland.] 

LEINSTER. Kelly's glen; Bally nascorney, Dublin co. 

LYCOPODIUM INUNDATUM, Linnaus. 

PENINSULA. Cornwall. Bovey Heathfield, Devonshire. Somer- 
setshire. 

CHANNEL. Titchfield ; Christchurch ; Selborne ; St. Jermyn's 
near Eomsey, aud other parts of Hampshire. Poole, Dor- 
setshire. Wiltshire. Sussex. 

THAMES. Keston heath; St. Paul's Cray; Chiselhurst, &c., 
Kent. Godalming; Witley; Bagshot; Chobham; Wimble- 
don ; Esher, &e., Surrey. Hampstead, Middlesex. Berk- 
shire. Essex. 

OUSE. Belton, Suffolk. S. Wootton; Norwich; Filby; Holt 
heath ; Yarmouth, Norfolk. Gamlingay, Cambridgeshire. 
Bedfordshire. Huntingdonshire. 

SEVERN. Coleshill, Warwickshire. Hartlebury, Worcester- 
shire. Staffordshire. 

TRENT. Leicestershire. Bogs by the Eainworth, Nottingham- 
shire. Derbyshire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 327 

MERSEY. Delamere forest; Thurtaston ; Bagueley moor ; Bid- 

ston, Cheshire. Lancashire. 
HUMBER. Stockton forest ; Sandpit, Malton road near York ; 

Norland Moor, near Halifax, Yorkshire. 
LAKES. Wastwater, Cumberland. Westmoreland. 
E. HIGHLANDS. Clunie Loch; Blair Athol, Perthshire. Ar- 

dorie wood, Eorfarshire. Cawdor Castle, &c.,Nairnshire. 

Carse of Ardersier near Fort St. George, Morayshire. 
W. HIGHLANDS. Inverarnon; between Luss and Inverglass, 

Dumbartonshire. 
N. HIGHLANDS Craig Darrock, Eoss-shire. Morven, Caithness, 

rare, T. Anderson. 
CONNAUGHT. Connemara, Galway. 

LYCOPODIUM SELAGINOIDES, Idnnaus. 

PENIN SULA. [Devonshire.] 

N. WALES. Aberffraw, Anglesea. Denbighshire. Cwm-Idwal; 
Clogwyn-du-Yrarddu ; Llanberis; Capel Curig, Carnar- 
vonshire. 

TRENT. Kinder Scout, Derbyshire. 

MERSEY. New Brighton, Cheshire. Near Southport ; Seaforth 
common, Bootle, Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Cronckley Pell ; Stockton forest ; Settle ; Eichmond ; 
York ; Knaresborough ; WhitsunclifFe near Thirsk, &c., 
Yorkshire. 



328 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

TYNE. Middleton, Teesdale; Gateshead Fell, Durham. Prest- 
wick Carr near Ponteland, Northumberland. 

LAKES. Loughrigg; P airfield; Kirkstone, Sec., Westmoreland. 
Borrowdale ; Keswick ; Derwentwater ; Scaw Pell, &c., 
Cumberland. Conistone, N. Lancashire. 

W. LOWLANDS. Grey mare's tail, and elsewhere, Dumfriesshire, 
P. Gray. Hills above Dalscairth; Port Ling, coast of 
Colvend, Kircudbright shire, P. Gray. 

E. LOWLANDS. Lammermuirs; Lamberton moor, Berwick- 
shire. Roxburgh shire. Haddingtonshire. Edinburghshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Stirlingshire. Clackmannanshire. Kinross- 
shire. Pifeshire. Craig Challiach ; Breadalbane mountains 
(3,000 feet), Perthshire. Caulochen; Glen Dole, Clova; 
Sidlaw hills ; Sands of Barry, Dundee, Porfarshire. Glen 
Callater ; Deanston, &c., Aberdeenshire. Kingussie ; Dal- 
whynnie, Moray shire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Prench Corrie, Strath Affarie, &c., W. Inver- 
ness-shire. Dunoon, Argyleshire. Dumbartonshire. Banks 
of Loch Sligachan, Isle of Skye. Isles of Islay and Cantyre. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Boss-shire. Sutherlandshire. Caithness, com- 
mon, T. Anderson. 

N. ISLES. Hovvton head, and elsewhere, Orkney. Shetland. 

W. ISLES. N. Uist. Harris. Lewis. 

ULSTER. Belfast mountains; near Larne, Antrim. Arrigal; 
Muckish, and other hills of Donegal. Slieve Donard; 
Mourne mountains, Down. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 

CoNNAUGHT.-Hills by the Killery; Leenane; Connemara, 

Galway. 
LEtNSTEB.-Carlingford mountain, Louth. Dublin co. 

LYCOPODIUM SELAGO, Linnaius. 
PENiNSULA.-Cornwall. Sidmouth; Dartmoor, Devonshire. 

Somersetshire. 
CHANNEL.-Near Aldershot, Hampshire. Dorsetshire. Wfl 

shire. Waldron down ; Tilgate forest, &c., Sussex. 
THAMES. Highdown heath; near Cesar's Camp, Farnham, 

Surrey. Shotover hill, Oxfordshire. 
OUSE Felthorp heath ; Holt heath, Norfolk. 
SEVERN.-tColeshill; Birmingham, Warwickshire.] Worces- 
tershire. Staffordshire. Titterstone Glee, Shropshire. 
S WALES.-Glamorganshire. Plinlymmon, Cardiganshire. 
N WALES.-Anglesea. Denbighshire. Cader-Idris; betwee 
Festiniog and Llyn Cromorddyn, Merionethshire. Llai 
beris- Cwm-Idwal, &c., Snowdon, Carnarvonshire. 
TBENT.-Leicestershire. Rutland. Mansfield, Nottinghamsh 

Above Edale Chapel, Derbyshire. 
MEESEY.-Bidston, Cheshire. Woolston moss, near ^ 

ton; Todmorden, Lancashire. 
HuMBEK-Settle; Halifax; Ingleborough ; Wensley 

&c., Yorkshire. 

TYNE ._Falcon Glints, Teesdale, Durham. Prestwick Carr n 
Ponteland; Haltwhistle ; Cheviot, Northumberland. 



330 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

LAKES. Skiddaw ; Ennerdale ; Helvellyn, Cumberland. West- 
moreland. 

W. LOWLANDS. Lochan moss, Dumfriesshire, P. Gray. Hills 
above Dalscairth, and Mabie ; Criffel, Kircudbrightshire, 
P. Gray, Renfrewshire. Lanarkshire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Roxburghshire. Belford ; Lamberton moor, &c., 
Berwickshire. Pentland hills, Edinburghshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Clackmannanshire. Kinross-shire. Pifeshire. 
Perthshire. Glen Callater ; Stocket moor ; Ben-na-muich- 
Dhu (4,320 ft.) ; Loch-na-gar, Aberdeenshire. Nigg, 
Kincardineshire. Banffshire. Badenoch, Kingussie, Mo- 
ray shire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Ben Nevis, W. Inverness-shire. Dunoon, 
Argyleshire. Goat Fell, Isle of Arran. Ben More, Isle of 
Mull. Ben Vigors, Islay. Cantyre. Skye. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Sutherlandshire. Ben Wyvis, Eoss-shire. 
Morveii, Caithness, T. Anderson. 

N. ISLES. Kirk wall, Mainland, /. T. Syme -, Hoy, T. Anderson, 
Orkney. 

W. ISLES. N. Uist. Harris. Lewis. 

ULSTER. Devis mountain, Antrim. Arrigal; Muckish, &c. 3 
Donegal. Slieve Donard, Down. 

LEINSTER. Dublin co. 

MTJNSTEB. Mangerton ; Bandon ; Carran-Tual ; Killarney, 
Kerry. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 331 

ISOETES LACUSTRIS, Linnxus. 

SEVERN. [Shropshire.] 

S. WALES. Lake below Brecon beacon, Brecknockshire. Gla- 
morganshire. 

N. WALES. Lakes of Denbighshire. Merionethshire. Ogwen ; 
Llyn-y-cwm ; Lakes of Llanberis, &c., Carnarvonshire. 

HUMBER. Castle Howard lake ; Foss reservoir near Coxwould, 
Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Prestwick Carr, Northumberland. 

LAKES. Bydal, and other lakes of Westmoreland. Ulleswater ; 
Eloutern Tarn, near Buttermere ; Crummock water ; Der- 
went water ; Wastwater, &c., Cumberland. Conistone, 
N. Lancashire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Stirlingshire. Eifeshire. Loch Tay ; Loch 
Lubnaig, Perthshire. Loch Brandy ; Loch Whirrall, near 
Kettin, Eorfarshire. Loch Callader, Aberdeenshire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Loch Sloy, Ben Yoirlich, Dumbartonshire. 
Lakes in the Isles of Skye and Bute. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Sutherlandshire. 

N. ISLES. Kirkwall (near the sea), Orkney, T. Anderson. 

ULSTER. Lakes in the Bosses, Donegal. Castle Blaney lake, 
Monaghan. 

CONN AUGHT. Lakes of Connemara. 

LEINSTER. Upper Lough Bray ; Glendalough, Wickiow, 



332 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

PILULARIA GLOBULIFERA, Linnaua. 

PENINSULA. Roche ; Marazion marsh, near Penzance, Corn- 
wall. Blackdown ; Polwhele, Devonshii'e. Maiden down, 
Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Lymington ; Holt forest ; Southampton ; Baddeiiey, 
Hampshire. Between Corfe Mullein and Poole ; Sandford 
bridge near Wareham, Dorsetshire. Warminster, Wilt- 
shire. Piltdown ; Charley North, common ; Quaybrook 
near Forest Row ; Chiltington, Sussex. 

THAMES. Northaw, Hertfordshire. Tver heath; Hounslow 
heath ; Hillingdon, Middlesex. Esher common ; near 
Reigate; Walton -on-the-hill ; Henley Park, Pirbright ; 
Roehampton, Surrey. 

OUSE. Hopton, Suifolk. Filby ; St. Faith's Newton ; Yar- 
mouth, Norfolk. Hinton bog, Cambridgeshire, J. PF. G. 
Gutch, B.S.L. Fen near Peterborough, Northamptonshire. 

SEVERN. Coleshill Pool, Warwickshire. Staffordshire. Bo- 
mere pool, Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Rhos Goch near Llandegly, Radnorshire. Moun- 
tain pool near Pont Nedd-Vechn, Glamorganshire. St. 
David's head, Pembrokeshire. 

N. WALES. Near Llanfaelog, Anglesea. Llyn-Idwal; Llan- 
beris lake, Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Leicestershire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION, 333 

MERSEY. Bagueley moor ; Beam heath near Nantwich ; Bar- 
lington heath ; Woove, Cheshire. Allerton, Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Near Richmond ; Stockton forest ; Gormire pool 
near Thirsk ; Terrington Carr, &c., Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Near Woolsingham ; Prestwick Carr, Ponteland, North- 
umberland. 

W. LOWLANDS. Dumfriesshire. ^Kirkcudbrightshire. Rother- 
glen, Lanarkshire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Pentland hills ; Braid hill marshes, Edinburgh- 
shire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Perthshire. Slateford; Monroman moor; 
Alyth ; near Eorfar, and other parts of Eorfarshire. Loch 
of Drum, Kincardineshire. Morayshire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Loch Lomond, Dumbartonshire. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Sutherlandshire. 

ULSTER. By the Blackwater near Lough Neagh ; by the Bann, 
below Jackson's hall, Coleraine, Antrim. 

CONNAUGHT. Ballinahynch, Galway. 

EQTJISETUM AEYENSE, Linncem. 

PENINSULA. Cornwall. Devonshire. Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Hampshire. Isle of Wight. Dorsetshire. Wilt- 
shire. Sussex. 

THAMES. Hertfordshire. Middlesex. Kent. Surrey. Ox- 
fordshire. Berkshire. Essex. 



334 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

OUSE. Suffolk. Norfolk. Cambridgeshire. Bedfordshire. 
Huntingdonshire. Northamptonshire. 

SEVERN. Warwickshire. Gloucestershire. Herefordshire. 
Worcestershire. Staffordshire. Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Glamorganshire. Pembrokeshire. Carmarthenshire. 

N. WALES. Anglesea. Denbighshire. Flintshire. 

TRENT. Leicestershire. Eutland. Lincolnshire. Nottingham- 
shire. Derbyshire. 

MERSEY. Lancashire. Cheshire. 

HUMBER. Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Durham. Northumberland. Isle of Man. 

LAKES. [No record.] 

W. LOWLANDS. Dumfriesshire. Kircudbrightshire. Lanark- 
shire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Berwickshire. Haddingtonshire. Edinburgh- 
shire. Linlithgowshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Stirlingshire. Clackmannanshire. Kinross- 
shire. Fifeshire. Perthshire. Forfarshire. Kincardine- 
shire. Aberdeenshire. Moray shire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Argyleshire. Dumbartonshire. Isles of Islay 
and Can tyre. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Ross-shire. Sutherlandshire. Caithness. 

N. ISLES. Orkney, T. Anderson. Shetland. 

W. ISLES. Eoddall, Harris. 

CHANNEL ISLES. Jersey. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 335 

EQUISETUM HYEMALE, Linnaus. 

PENINSULA. [Somersetshire.] 

CHANNEL. [Near Broadstitch Abbey, Wiltshire.] 

THAMES. [Middlesex.] Kent. Wanborough near Guildford, 
Surrey. 

OUSE. St. Faith's Newton ; Arming-hall wood, near Norwich, 
Norfolk. Stretham ferry, Gamlingay, Cambridgeshire. 
Potton marshes ; Ampthill bogs, Bedfordshire. 

SEVERN. Near Middleton, Warwickshire. Pencoyed, Here- 
fordshire. Moseley bog, Worcestershire. Staffordshire. 
Dell at Bitterley below the Clee hills, Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Swansea, Glamorganshire, /. W. G. Gutch, B.S.L. 

N. WALES. Wrexham, Denbighshire. Flintshire. 

TRENT. Grace Dieu wood, Charnwood forest ; Measham, Leices- 
tershire. Nettleworth green, near Mansfield ; Kirklington, 
Nottinghamshire. 

MERSEY. Near Arden hall ; Lally's wood, near Over ; Thurtas- 
ton, Cheshire. Mere Clough near Manchester, Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Halifax ; by the Derwent near Castle Howard ; 
Goadland dale near W T hitby ; Hackness near Scarborough ; 
by the Skell near Ripon ; Conesthorpe ; Bolton woods, 
Wharfdale ; Rigby woods near Pontefract, and many other 
parts of Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Hawthorn Dene ; Castle Eden Dene, Durham. Scots- 



336 HISTORY OF BRITISH PERNS. 

wood Dene ; Mill green ; Heaton wood ; Felton ; W ark- 
worth, Northumberland. 

LAKES. Sowgelt bridge, Cumberland. Westmoreland. 

W. LOWLANDS. Barnbarrock, Colvend, Kircudbright shire. Ayr- 
shire. Carra Lyn ; Calderwood, Lanarkshire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Eosslyn ; Lasswade ; Dalkeith, and elsewhere 
about Edinburgh. Lamberton moor, Berwickshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Kenmore, Perthshire. Den of Airly, Forfar- 
shire. Park ; Eanks of the Dee, Kincardineshire. Pitten- 
driech ; Forres, Morayshire. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Eoss-shire. 

ULSTER. Antrim. Tyrone. 

LEINSTER. Powerscourt, Sec., Wicklow. Wood at Leislip Castle, 
and elsewhere about Dublin. 

EQUISETUM LIMOSUM, Linnceus. 

PENINSULA. Cornwall. Devonshire. Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Hampshire. Isle of Wight. Dorsetshire. Wilt- 
shire. Sussex. 

THAMES. Middlesex. Kent. Surrey, Hertfordshire. Ox- 
fordshire. Essex. 

OUSE. Suffolk. Norfolk. Cambridgeshire. Bedfordshire. 
Huntingdonshire. Northamptonshire. 

SEVERN. Warwickshire. Gloucestershire. Herefordshire. 
Worcestershire. Staffordshire. Shropshire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 337 

S. WALES. Glamorganshire. Carmarthenshire. 

N. WALES. Anglesea. Denbighshire. 

TRENT. Leicestershire. Rutland. Lincolnshire. Derbyshire. 
Nottinghamshire. 

MERSEY.- Cheshire. Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Durham. Northumberland. 

LAKES. Cumberland. Westmoreland. 

W. LOWLANDS. Dumfriesshire. Kircudbrightshire. Renfrew- 
shire. Lanarkshire. 

E, LOWLANDS. Roxburghshire. Berwickshire. Edinburgh- 
shire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Clackmannanshire. Kinross-shire. Fifeshire. 
Perthshire. Forfarshire. Aberdeenshire. Morayshire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. Dumbartonshire. Loch Skyros, Islay (with 
var. "simplex "). 

N. HIGHLANDS. Ross-shire. Caithness-shire. 

N. ISLES.- Kirk wall, Orkney, /. T. Syme. 

W. ISLES. N. Uist. Harris. Lewis. 

ULSTER. i 

CONNAUGHT. 

> Common in Ireland. 
LEINSTER. 

MUNSTER. J 
CHANNEL ISLES. Jersey. 



338 HISTORY OP BRITISH FERNS. 

EQUISETUM MACKAYI, Newman. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Den of Airly, Eorfarshire. Banks of the 

Dee, Aberdeenshire. 
ULSTER. Colin Glen, Belfast; "The Glens;" Calton Glen, 

Antrim. Ballyharrigan Glen, Londonderry. 

EQUISETUM PALUSTEE, Unnau*. 

PENINSULA. Cornwall. Brannton Burroughs, Devonshire (yar. 
nudum). Weston-super-mare (var. polystacJiion) ; sands 
at Bream (var. nudwri), Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Hampshire. Shanklin Chine and Cockleton (with 
var. polystacJiion) ; Moor town, Brixton; Easton Fresh- 
water gate, Isle of Wight. Dorsetshire. Spye Park (var. 
polystackion) ; Purton, Wiltshire. Sussex. 

THAMES. Hertford; Stortford; Hitchin; St. Albans, Hert- 
fordshire. Middlesex. Stoke; Woodbridge near Guildford, 
and Richmond park (var. polystacJiion), &c., Surrey. Strat- 
ford, Essex (var. polystacJdori). Oxfordshire. Essex. 

OUSE. Suffolk. Norfolk. Cambridgeshire. Bedfordshire. 
Northamptonshire. 

SEVERN. Harts-hill (var. polystacJiion)^ &c., Warwickshire. 
Gloucestershire. Herefordshire. Staffordshire. Worces- 
tershire. Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Glamorganshire. Carmarthenshire. Pembrokeshire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 339 

N. WALES. Anglesea. Denbighshire. Conway sands, Car- 
narvonshire (var.polystackion). 

TRENT. Leicestershire. Eutland. Lincolnshire. Derbyshire. 
Nottinghamshire. 

MERSEY Crosby (vars. polystachion and nuduni) ; Formby 
(var. polystachion) ; Broadbank (var. nudum\ Lancashire. 
Cheshire. 

HUMBER. Aldingham (var. nudum), and elsewhere, York- 
shire. 

TYNE. Durham. Northumberland. 

LAKE s . Westmoreland. 

W. LOWLANDS. Dumfriesshire. Kircudbrightshire. Lanark- 
shire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Berwickshire. Eoxburghshire. Edinburgh- 
shire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Stirlingshire. Clackmannanshire. Kinross- 
shire. Fifeshire. Kincardineshire. Morayshire. Brea- 
dalbane mountains, Perthshire (vars. polystachion and nu- 
dum). Sands of Barry, Forfarshire (var. nudum). Braemar 
(var. polystachion) , and elsewhere, Aberdeenshire. 

W. HIGHLANDS. W.Inverness-shire. Argyleshire. Isles of 
Islay and Cantyre. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Caithness. Eoss-shire. 

N. ISLES. Orkney, common, T. Anderson. 

W. ISLES. Eoddal, Harris. 



340 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

ULSTER. Logan canal (var. poly >stacMori) ; near the Giant's 
Causeway, Antrim. -| 

CONNAUGHT. I Abundant in Ireland, especially 

LEINSTER. in the north. 

MUNSTER. j 

CHANNEL ISLES. Jersey. 

EQUISETUM SYLYATICUM, Linnaus. 

PENINSULA. Devonshire. Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Parsonage Lynch, Newchurch ; Apse heath, Isle of 
Wight. Dorsetshire, Wiltshire. Sussex. 

THAMES. Bell wood, and Bayford wood, Hertfordshire. High 
gate, Middlesex. Kent. Burgate, Godalming, Surrey. 
Bagley wood, Berkshire. High Beech, Essex. 

OUSE. Suffolk. Norfolk. Chesterton ; Madingley wood, Cam- 
bridgeshire. Bedfordshire. Northamptonshire, 

SEVERN. Arbury; Mosely bog near Birmingham, Warwickshire. 
Gloucestershire. Herefordshire. Worcestershire. Staf- 
fordshire. Benthal Edge, Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Hafod, and about the Devil's bridge, Cardiganshire. 
Carmarthenshire. Neath, Glamorganshire, E. Lees, B.S.L. 

N. WALES. Near Bala, Merionethshire. Denbighshire. 

TRENT. Leicestershire. Eutland. Southwood near Calke 
Abbey; Cromford moor, Derbyshire. Aspleywood; South- 
well, Nottinghamshire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 341 

MERSEY. Cheshire. Hurst Clough, Manchester; Egerton 

near Bolton, and elsewhere, Lancashire. 
HUMBER. Huddersfield ; Arncliffe woods; Castle Howard; 

Settle; Richmond; Leeds; Whitby; Forge Valley near 

Scarborough, &c., Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Morpeth; Hexham, Northumberland. Durham. 
LAKES. Ennerdale, &c., Cumberland. Westmoreland. 
W. LOWLANDS, Dumfriesshire. Kireudbrightshire. Renfrew- 

shire. Lanarkshire. 
E. LOWLANDS. Houndwood; Langridge Dean, Berwickshire. 

Eosslyn wood and elsewhere, Edinburgh. Roxburghshire. 
E. HIGHLANDS. Clackmannanshire. Kinross-shire. Banks of 

Bruar, Blair Athol ; Vicar's bridge ; Breadalbane mountains, 

Perthshire. Montrose ; Craig, &c., Eorfarshire. Eifeshire. 

Woodstone hills, Kincardineshire. Aberdeenshire. Caw- 
dor, Nairnshire. Moray shire. 
W. HIGHLANDS. W. Inverness-shire. By Loch Fine, Argyle- 

sliire. 

N. HIGHLANDS. Ross-shire. Sutherlandshire. 
N. ISLES. Orkney. Shetland. 
W. ISLES. Roddal, Harris. 
ULSTER. Antrim. Londonderry, Donegal. 
CONNAUGHT. Oughterard, Galway. 
LEINSTER. Stagstown, Dublin co. Wicklow. 



342 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

EQUISETUM TELMATEIA, Mrhart. 

PENINSULA. Cornwall. Undercliff near Sidmoutb, &c., Devon- 
shire. Somersetshire. 

CHANNEL. Hampshire. Luccomb cliff, &c., Isle of Wight. 
Dorsetshire. Wiltshire. Hastings, Sussex. 

THAMES. Hertfordshire. Hampstead, Middlesex. West Farleigh, 
Kent. Eeigate; Norwood; Godalming, Surrey. Oxfordshire. 
Berkshire. Buckinghamshire. Coggeshall, Warley, Essex. 

OUSE. Ipswich, Suffolk. Norfolk. Cambridgeshire. Bed- 
fordshire. Northamptonshire. 

SEVERN. Woods near Arbury hall, Warwickshire. Glouces- 
tershire. Worcestershire. Staffordshire. Shropshire. 

S. WALES. Glamorgan. Carmarthenshire. Pembrokeshire. 

N. WALES. Anglesea. Denbighshire. Bangor, Carnarvonshire. 

TRENT. Leicestershire. Derbyshire. Nottinghamshire. 

MERSEY. Poulton; Arden hall, Cheshire. Broadbank near 
Coin ; Todmorden ; Manchester, Lancashire. 

HUMBER. Arncliffe wood and elsewhere, Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Hawthorn Dene, Durham. Morpeth, Northumberland. 

LAKES. Cumberland. Westmoreland. 

W. LOWLANDS. Renfrewshire. Lanarkshire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Lamberton, between Berwick and Ayton, Ber- 
wickshire. Eosslyn and various places about Edinburgh. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Montrose; banks of S. Esk, Forfarshire. 
Kincardineshire. Aberdeenshire. 



LOCAL DISTRIBUTION. 343 

W. HIGHLANDS. Campbelton, Argyleshire. Islay. Arran. 
N. ISLES. [Orkney.] 
ULSTER. ^ 

CONNAUGHT. 

} Frequent in Ireland. 
LEINSTER. 



MUNSTER. 

CHANNEL ISLES. Jersey. 

EQUISETUM UMBEOSUM, Willdenow. 

MERSEY. [Near Mere Clough, Manchester, Lancashire.] 

HUMBER. Yorkshire. 

TYNE. Wynch bridge, Teesdale, Durham. Near Felton ; 
Warkworth, Northumberland. 

LA KE s . Westmoreland. 

W. LOWLANDS. Bonnington woods ; woods near Corra Lyn ; 
Finglen near Glasgow, Lanarkshire. 

E. LOWLANDS. Woods on the banks of the Esk below Auchin- 
deuny, Edinburghshire. Woodcock dale ; Belleryde, W. H. 
Campbell, B.S.E., Linlithgowshire. 

E. HIGHLANDS. Campsie Glen, Stirlingshire. Castle Camp- 
bell woods, near Dollar, Clackmannanshire, J. T. Syme. 
Woods near Dunfermline, Fifeshire. Glen Tilt ; Ballater ; 
Lethen's dene, Ochils ; Glen Devon, Perthshire. Eavine 
of the White-water, Glen Dole, Clova ; banks of the Isla, 
Den of Airly, below Eeeky Lyn, G. Lawson ; Canlochen, 



844 HISTORY or BRITISH FERNS. 

Glen Isla; by the Caledonian Canal, near Eorfar, Eorfar- 
shire. Aberdeenshire. Banffshire. Morayshire. 
ULSTER. Mountain glens of Antrim ; as at Wolf hill, and Glen- 
doon near Cushendall. 

EQUISETUM VABIEGATUM, Weber and MoJir. 

PENINSULA. Salcombe Cliff, Sidmouth, Devonshire. [So- 
mersetshire.] 
MERSEY. New Brighton, and near the Magazines, Cheshire. 

Bootle sands ; Southport ; Waterloo near Liverpool (var. 

arenarium), Lancashire. 
HUMBER. Aysgarth force, Yorkshire, B.S.E. 
TYNE. Widdy bank ; Wynch bridge ; Middleton, Teesdale ; 

and elsewhere near the Tees, Durham. Northumberland. 
LAKES. By the Irthing, at Gilsland, Cumberland. 
W. LOWLANDS. Lanarkshire. 
E. LOWLANDS. Near N. Berwick, Haddingtonshire. 
E. HIGHLANDS. Sands of Barry, Dundee, Forfarshire (var. 

arenarium). Banks of the Dee, Kincardineshire (with var. 

Wilsoni). 

N. HIGHLANDS. Tain, Eoss-shire, B.S.E. 
LEINSTER. Portmarnock sands; Royal canal (var. Wilsoni), 

both near Dublin. Wicklow, D. Moore. 
MUNSTER. Ditch at Mucruss, Killarney, Kerry (var. Wilsoni). 



APPENDIX. 



FOLYPODIUM ALPESTRE, Sprengel. The Alpine Polypody. 

This plant has exactly the habit and appearance of AtTiyrium 
Mlix-fcemina ; and hence Mr. Newman, in proposing to make it 
the type of a new family group, has called it Pseudathyrium 
alpestre. It is a very elegant plant, the fronds reaching from a 
foot to a foot and a half high, and growing terminally from a 
short creeping rhizome. The fronds are lance-shaped, narrowed 
to the base, and twice pinnately divided. The pinnae are lan- 
ceolate, acuminate; the pinnules lanceolate, acute, and deeply 
pinnatifid, with oblong sharply-serrated segments. The son are 
produced either at the sinus of the lobes of the pinnule, and 
thus form two distinct and distant lines parallel to, and on 
each side the midrib ; or the little lobes bear about four son, 
disposed in a row, on each side their midvein, and so near 
together as to become confluent into one mass. 

This species, hitherto known as a native of Switzerland, has 
been gathered by H. C. Watson, Esq., in the Highlands of 



346 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

Scotland. It was found so long since as 1841, but, from its 
close resemblance to AtJiyrium Filix-fcemina, has not been till 
just now recognized ; and it is probable that it may have been 
gathered by many persons in many parts of the Highlands, and 
passed by as the commoner species. The ascertained localities 
have been thus obligingly communicated by Mr. Watson : 
Mountains near Dalwhinnie, Inverness-shire, 1841. Great Corrie 
of Ben Aulder, Inverness-shire, 1841. Canlochen glen, Forfar- 
shire, 1844. 

This plant is no doubt the Aspidium alpestre of Hoppe ; and 
is also the Aspidium rlicei/lcum of Swartz, and Polypodium rhteti- 
cum of Woods, according to Newman. There is, moreover, 
reason to believe it is the Polypodium rhceticum of Linnaeus, and 
if this can be satisfactorily settled, the name rhaticum must 
supersede that of alpestre. It has been already mentioned that 
Mr. Newman constitutes it a new genus Pseudatliyrium. 



ADDITIONAL SYNONYMS. 



The following names have been published, or more promi- 
nently adopted, since the preceding pages were printed : 
Atliyrium Mlix-fcemina (p. 87) is A.incisum, Newman. 
AtJiyrium Mlix-fcemina t var. convexum (p. 89), is A. convexum, 

Newman. 
AtJiyrium Filix-fcemina, var. latifolium (p. 90), is the A.ovatum, 

Roth, according to Mr. Newman ; but we do not concur in 

this opinion. 
AtJiyrium Mlix-fcemina^ var. molle (p. 90), is A. molle (Tloth), 

Newman. 
Cystopteris fragilis, var. Dickieana (p. 1 08), is C. Dickieana (Sim), 

Newman. 

Cystopteris montana (p. 109) is C. Allioni, Newman. 
Lastrea cristata (p. 116) is Lophodium Callipteris, Newman, 
Lastrea cristata, var. uliginosa (p. 121), is Lophodium uliginosum, 

Newman. 
Lastrea dilatata (p. 123) is Lophodium multiftorum, Newman. 



34)8 HISTORY OF BRITISH FERNS. 

Lastrea Filix-mas (p. 126) is LopJwdium Filix-mas, Newman. 
Lastrea fcenisecii (p. 129) is Lophodium fcenisecii, Newman. 
Lastrea glandulosa (p. 125) is LopJiodium glanduliferum, Newman, 

and L. glandulosum, Newman. 

Lastrea Oreopteris (p. 131) is HemestJieum montanum, Newman. 
Lastrea rigida (p. 132) is LopJiodium fragrans, Newman. 
Lastrea spinulosa (p. 134) is LopJiodium spinosum, Newman. 
Lastrea Thelypteris (p. 136) is Hemestheum montanum, Newman. 
Polypodium calcareum (p. 146) is Gymnocarpium Robertianum, 

Newman. 
Polypodium Dryopteris (p. 148) is Gymnocarpium Dryopteris, 

Newman. 
Polypodium Phegopteris (p. 150) is Gymnocarpium PJiegopteris> 

Newman. 

Polypodium vulgare (p. 152) is Ctenopteris vulgaris, Newman. 
Pteris aquilina (p. 163) is Eupteris aquilina, Newman. 



INDEX. 



Page. 
Acrosticlmm alpinum . . . .181 

hyperboreum 181 

ilvense. ...... 182 

septentrionale .... 80 

Spicant 96 

Adiantum 45, 59 

Capillus-Veneris, described 54, 60 

its distribution . 62, 263 

its culture 62 

Allosorus 44, 63 

crispus, described . . . 49, 64 

its distribution . 65, 264 

its culture 65 

Amesium germanicum .... 73 

Ruta-muraria . . . . 79 

septentrionale . . . . 80 

Aspidium aculeatum . . . .158 

angulare ....'. 160 

dilatatum 123 

erosum 128 

Filix-mas 129 

Filix-fcemina 92 

fontanum 72 

Halleri 72 

Lonchitis 161 

montanum . . . .111 



Page. 

Aspidium Oreopteris . . . .132 

rigidum 132 

spinulosum 134 

Thelypteris 136 

Asplenium 45, 65 

acutum 69 

Adiantum-nigrum, described 54, 66 

its varieties . . . .68 

its distribution . 68,266 

its culture 69 

alternifolium 73 

Breynii 73 

Ceterach 103 

Filix-fbemina 92 

fontanum, described . . . 53, 69 

its distribution . 71, 268 

its culture 71 

germanicum, described . . 53, 72 

its distribution . 73, 268 

its culture 73 

lanceolatum, described . . 53, 74 

its distribution . 75, 268 

its culture 74 

marinum, described . . . 53, 76 

its distribution . 76, 269 

its culture 77 



350 



INDEX. 



Page. 
A.melanocaulon ...... 83 

obtusum ....... 69 

Ruta-muraria, described . 53, 78 

- its distribution . 79, 271 
Scolopendrium ..... 174 
septentrionale, described . 53, 79 

- its distribution . . .273 

- its culture ..... 80 

Spicant ....... 96 

Trichomaues, described . . 53, 80 

- its varieties . . . 53,82 

- its distribution . 82, 273 

- its properties .... 82 

- its culture ..... 82 
viride, described . . . . 53, 83 

- its distribution . 84, 275 

- its culture ..... 84 
Athyrium ...... 44, 84 

convexum . , ..... 347 
Filix-fcemina, described . . 52, 87 

- its varieties . . . 52, 89 

- its distribution , 91, 276 

- its culture ..... 92 

incisum ........ 347 

molle ........ 347 

ovatum ....... 347 



Barometz, or Scythian lamb, 
vegetable curiosity .. 
Bleclmum ...... 

boreale 

Spicant, described . . . 

- its distribution . 

- its culture 
BotrycMum ..... 

Lunaria, described . . . 

- its distribution . 

- its culture 

British Ferns, statistics of . 



a 

. 35 

46, 93 
96 

55, 94 

96, 279 

96 

47, 96 
55, 97 

99, 280 

99 

. 3 



British ferns, literature of 



Page. 
. 5 



Ceterach 45, 99 

officinarum, described . 54, 100 

its distribution . 102, 283 

its culture 102 

Classification of Terns .... 41 
CLUB-MOSSES .... 47, 183 
Cryptogramma crispa . . . . 65 
Ctenopteris vulgaris . . . .347 

Culture of Ferns 25 

in the open air .... 25 

in Wardian cases , . .26 

Cyathea montana Ill 

regia 105 

incisa 105 

Cystea regia 105 

Cystopteris .... 44, 103 

Allioni . . . 347 

alpina, described . . . . 52, 104 

its distribution . 105, 286 

Dickieana 347 

fragilis, described . . 51, 106 

its varieties . 51, 52, 107 

its distribution . 108, 286 

its culture 109 

montana, described . . 52, 109 
its distribution . Ill, 289 

Distribution of Ferns .... 29 
statistics of 30 

EQUISETUMS, denned . 48, 217, 221 

structure of 218 

uses of 220 

culture of 253 

Equisetum 221 

arvense, described . . 57, 222 
its distribution . 222, 333 



INDEX. 



351 



Page. 
E. elongatum 232 


Hemestheum Thelypteris . 
HORSETAILS, defined . . 
Hymenophyllum . . 
tunbridgense, described . 
its distribution 
its culture . 


Page. 
. . 348 
48, 217 
46,112 
55,113 
114, 289 
. . 114 


hyemale, described . . 58, 226 
its distribution . 228, 335 
its uses 228 


limosum, described . . 57, 229 
its distribution . 229, 336 
its uses 232 


unilaterale, described 
its distribution 
Wilsoni 


55, 114 
115, 290 
. . 114 


Mackayi, described . . 58, 232 
its distribution . . 23, 338 
palustre, described . . 58, 235 
its distribution . 235, 338 
its varieties . . . .236 
sylvaticum, described . 57, 238 
its distribution . 243, 340 
Telmateia, described . 57, 243 
its distribution . 246, 342 
umbrosum, described . 57, 246 
its distribution . 249, 343 
variegatum, described . 58, 250 
its varieties . . 58,252 
its distribution . 253, 344 
Eupteris aquilina 348 


Indusium 


. . 18 


Isoetes 


48, 204 
. 56, 205 
. . 331 
. . 209 


lacustris, described . . 
its distribution 
its culture . . 


TiRfSt'-peRr 


44, 116 
. . 125 


collina 


cristata, described . 50, 
its distribution 
its culture . 


116,118 
121, 292 
121 


its varieties . . 
dilatata, described . 51, 
its distribution 
its culture . 


51, 121 
119, 123 
125, 293 
125 


FILICES, defined 43 


Fructification . .... 17 


Genera of British Ferns . . .43 
Germination of Ferns .... 22 
conditions requisite for . . 22 


its varieties . . 
Dryopteris 


50, 124 
. . 150 


erosa . .... 


. . 128 


Filix-mas, described . . 
its varieties . . 
its distribution 
its culture . 


50, 126 
50, 128 
129, 295 
. . 129 
. . 125 


Grammitis Ceterach . . . .103 
Groups of British Ferns ... 43 
Gymnocarpium Dryopteris . .348 
Phegopteris . . . 348 


foenisecii, described . 51, 
its distribution 


119, 129 
130, 296 
. . 131 


Robertianum 348 


Gymnogramma Ceterach . . .103 
the gold and silver Ferns . 3 

Hemestheum montanum . . . 348 


maculata 


. . 125 


Oreopteris, described 
its distribution - . 


50, 131 
132, 297 



352 



INDEX. 



Page. 
L. Oreopteris, its culture . . .132 

Phegopteris 152 

recurva 131 

rigida, described .... 50, 132 

its distribution . 133, 300 

its culture 134 

spinulosa, described 54, 118, 134 

its distribution . 136, 300 

its culture 136 

Thelypteris, described . 50, 136 

its distribution . 137, 301 

its culture 137 

uliginosa .... 51, 118, 121 

Lepidodendrons 186 

Lomaria Spicant . . . . . 96 
Lophodium Callipteris .... 347 

Filix-mas 348 

foenisecii 348 

fragrans 348 

glanduliferum .... 348 

multiflorurn 347 

spinosum 348 

uliginosum 347 

LYCOPODIUMS, defined . . 47, 183 

structure of 183 

uses of 186 

fossil 186 

culture of 199 

Lycopodium .... 47, 183 
alpinum, described . . 56, 187 

its distribution . . .189 

its uses 189 

annotinum, described . 56, 189 

its distribution . 191, 324 

clavatum, described . . 56, 191 

distribution . . 193, 324 

its uses 193 

inundatum, described . 56, 194 
its distribution . 194,326 



Page. 
L. selaginoides, described . 56, 195 

its distribution . 196, 327 

Selago, described . . 56, 196 

its distribution . 196, 329 

its uses 199 

MARSILEACEJS, denned ... 47 

Nephrodium fcenisecii . . . .131 
Notolopeum Ceterach .... 103 

Onoclea Spicant 96 

OPHIOGLOSSACE^E, defined . . 46 
OpMoglossum ... 47, 137 

vulgatum 55, 138 

its distribution . 139, 303 

its culture 139 

OSMUNDACE^, defined ... 46 
Osmunda ..... 46,139 

borealis 96 

crispa 65 

Lunaria 99 

regalis, described . . 55, 142 

its distribution . 144, 305 

its culture 144 

Spicant 96 

PEPPERWORTS, defined . 47, 204 

Pilularia 48,211 

globulifera, described . 57, 212 

its distribution . 216, 332 

its culture 209 

POLYPODIACE.E, defined ... 43 

Aspidiese 44 

Aspleniese 44 

Dicksoniese 46 

Polypodieae 43 

Pteridese 45 

Polypodium .... 43, 145 



INDEX. 



353 



Page. 

P. aculeatum 158 

alpestre, described . . . .345 

its distribution . . .307 

alpinum 105 

calcareum, described . 49, 146 

its distribution . 147, 307 

its culture 147 

cambricum 154 

Dryopteris, described . 49, 148 

its distribution . 150, 308 

its culture 148 

Filix-femina 92 

Filix-mas 129 

fontanum 72 

hyperboreum 181 

ilvense 182 

Lonchitis 161 

montanum Ill 

Oreopteris 132 

Phegopteris, described . 49, 150 

its distribution . 150, 311 

its culture 152 

rigidum 132 

Robertianum 147 

spinulosum 134 

Thelypteris 137 

vulgare, described . . 49, 152 

its varieties . . 49, 154 

its distribution . 152, 313 

its culture 154 

Polystichum . . . . 44, 155 
aculeatum, described . 51, 156 

its distribution . 158, 341 

its culture 158 

its varieties . . 51, 157 

angulare, described . . 51, 158 

its varieties . . 51, 159 

its distribution . 159, 317 

its culture . .160 



P. Lonchitis, described 

its distribution 

its culture . . 

Preservations of Terns in 

selection of . . 

arrangement of . 

Propagation of Ferns . 

Pseudathyrium alpestre 

Pteris 

aquilina, described . 

its varieties 

its distribution 

its culture . . 



Page. 

. 51, 160 
. 161, 318 
... 161 
herbaria 37 
... 37 
... 39 
... 20 
... 345 
. 45, 162 
. 54, 163 
. 54, 167 
. 167, 319 
... 167 



Receptacle 16 

Scolopendrium . . . 45, 168 

alternifolium 73 

Ceterach ....... 103 

officiiiarum 174 

Phyllitidis 174 

Ruta-muraria 79 

septentrionale 80 

vulgare, described . . 54, 169 

its varieties . . 54, 171 

its distribution . 173, 319 

its culture 173 

Scythian lamb, a vegetable curiosity 3 5 

Sorus 17 

Spore-cases 17 

Spores 17 

compared with seeds . . 20 

their structure .... 20 

their mode of growth . . 21 

Structure 7 

what a Fern is .... 8, 43 

root 9 

stems 10 

leaves, or fronds 11 



354 



INDEX. 



Page, 
leaves, or fronds, great variety of 1 3 

duration of .... 13 

parts of 13 

mode of division ... 15 

aestivation of . . . . 16 

venation of .... 16 

stipes 14 

fructification 17, 18 

receptacle 16 

19 
96 
1 
2 
43 



internal structure 
Struthiopteris Spicant . . . 
Study of Perns, inducement to 



best method of 



Table of groups and genera 

Table of species . . t . . . 49 

Topographical aspect of Ferns . 30 

arborescent, or tree Terns . 30 

shrubby Ferns . . . . 31 

herbaceous Ferns ... 31 

epiphytal Ferns . . . . 32 



Page. 
Trichomanes .... 46, 174 

brevisetum 178 

radicans, described . . 55, 175 

its variety 177 

its distribution . 177, 321 

its culture 178 

speciosum 178 

Uses of Ferns 33 

food-yielding species . . 33 

medicinal species ... 34 

oeconomical species ... 35 

Woodsia 44, 178 

alpina 180 

hyperborea, described . 50, 179 

its distribution . 181,321 

its culture 181 

ilvensis, described . . 50, 181 
its distribution . .321 



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28. THE VICTORIA REGIA. By Sir W. J. HOOKER, F.R.S. In ele- 
phant folio. Beautifully illustrated by W. Fitch. Reduced to 21*. 

29. THE RHODODENDRONS OF SIKKIM-HIMALAYA. First Series. 
With coloured drawings and descriptions made on the spot. By J. D. 
HOOKER, M.D., F.R.S. Edited by Sir W. J. HOOKER, D.C.L., 
F.R.S. Second Edition. In handsome imperial folio, with ten plates. 
Price 21*. coloured. 

" In this work we have the first results of Dr. Hooker's botanical mission to India. 
The announcement is calculated to startle some of our readers when they know that it 
was only last January twelvemonths that the Doctor arrived in Calcutta. That he 
should have ascended the Himalaya, discovered a number of plants, and that they 
should be published in England in an almost UNEQUALLED STYLE OF MAGNIFICENT 
ILLUSTRATION, in less than eighteen months is one of the marvels of our time." 
Athenaeum. 

30. THE RHODODENDRONS OF SIKKIM-HIMALAYA. Second 
Series. By JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER, M.D., F.R.S. Edited by Sir 
W. J. HOOKER, M.D., F.R.S. In handsome imperial folio, with ten 
plates. Price 25*. coloured. 

31. THE RHODODENDRONS OF SIKKIM- HIMALAYA. Third and 
concluding Series. By JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER, M.D., F.R.S. 
Edited by Sir W. J. HOOKER, M.D., F.R.S. In handsome imperial 
folio, with ten plates. Price 25*. coloured. 

32. POPULAR BRITISH ORNITHOLOGY; comprising a familiar and 
technical description of the Birds of the British Isles. By P. H. 
GOSSE, Author of ' The Ocean,' ' The Birds of Jamaica, 3 &c. In twelve 
chapters, each being the Ornithological lesson for the month. In one 
vol. royal 16mo, with twenty plates of figures. Price 10*. 6d. coloured. 

" To render the subject of ornithology clear, and its study attractive, has been the 
great aim of the author of this beautiful little volume. . . It is embellished by upwards 
of seventy plates of British birds beautifully coloured." Morning Herald. 

33. POPULAR BRITISH ENTOMOLOGY; comprising a familiar and 
technical description of the Insects most common to the British Isles. 
By MARIA E. CATLOW. Second Edition. In twelve chapters, each 
being the Entomological lesson for the month. In one vol. royal 16mo, 
with sixteen plates of figures. Price 10*. d. coloured. 

" Judiciously executed, with excellent figures of the commoner species, for the use 



English of above 200 of the commoner British species, together with accurate figures 
of about 70 of those described ; and will be quite a treasure to any one just commencing 
the study of this fascinating science." Westminster and Foreign Quarterly Review. 



LIST OF WORKS. 7 

34. THE DODO AND ITS KINDRED; or, the History, Affinities, and 

Osteology of the DODO, SOLITAIRE, and other extinct birds of the 
Islands Mauritius, Rodriguez, and Bourbon. By H. E. STRICKLAND, 
Esq., M.A., F.R.G.S., F.G.S. ; and A. G. MELVILLE, M.D., M.R.C.S. 
One vol. royal quarto, with eighteen plates and numerous wood illustra- 
tions. Price 21s, 
" The labour expended on this book, and the beautiful manner in which it is got up, 

render it a work of great interest to the naturalist It is a model of how such 

subjects should be treated. We know of few more elaborate and careful pieces of com- 
parative anatomy than is given of the head and foot by Dr. Melville. The dissection is 
accompanied by lithographic plates, creditable alike to the artist and the printer." 
Athenaeum. 

35. A CENTURY OF ORCHIDACEOUS PLANTS, the Plates selected 

from the Botanical Magazine. The descriptions re-written by Sir 
WILLIAM JACKSON HOOKER, F.R.S., Director of the Royal Gardens 
of Kew ; with Introduction and instructions for their culture by JOHN 
CHARLES LYONS, Esq. One hundred plates, royal quarto. Price 
Five Guineas, coloured. 
" In the exquisite illustrations to this splendid volume, full justice has been rendered 

to the oddly formed and often brilliantly coloured flowers of this curious and interesting 

tribe of plants." Westminster and Foreign Quarterly Review. 

36. CONCHOLOGIA SYSTEMATICA; or, Complete System of Con- 
chology. 300 plates of upwards of 1,500 figures of Shells. By 
LOVELL REEVE, F.L.S. Two vols. 4to, cloth. Price IQl. coloured; 
Ql. plain. 

" The text is both interesting and instructive ; many of the plates have appeared be- 
fore in Mr. Sowerby's works; but from the great expense of collecting them, and the 
miscellaneous manner of their publication, many persons will no doubt gladly avail 
themselves of this select and classified portion, which also contains many original 
figures." Athenceum. 

' 37. ELEMENTS OF CONCHOLOGY; or, Introduction to the Natural 
History of Shells and their molluscous inhabitants. By LOVELL REEVE, 
F.L.S. Parts 1 to 10. Royal 8vo, cloth. Price 3$. Qd. Coloured 
plates. 

38. ICONES PLANTARUM ; or, Figures, with brief descriptive characters 

and remarks, of new and rare Plants. By Sir W. J. HOOKER. Vol. 5, 
8vo, cloth. Price II. Us. d. Plain plates. 

39. FLORA ANTARCTICA; or, Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. By 

JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER, M.D., R.N., F.R.S., &c. Two vols. royal 
4to, 200 plates. Price 10/. 15,?. coloured; 11. iOs. plain. 

40. CRYPTOGAMIA ANTARCTICA; or, Cryptogamic Botany of the 
Antarctic Voyage. By JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER, F.R.S., &c. 
Royal 4to. Price 4/. 4*. coloured; 21. 17*. plain. 

41. THE BRITISH DESMIDIE^; or, Fresh-Water Algse. By JOHN" 

RALFS, M.R.C.S. Price 36s. coloured plates. 



8 LIST OF WORKS. 

42. CONCHYLIA DITHYRA INSULARUM BRITANNICARUM. By 
WILLIAM TURTON, M.D. Reprinted verbatim from the original 
edition. Large paper, price 21. 10s. 

43. THE PLANETARY AND STELLAR UNIVERSE. By ROBERT 
JAMES MANN. 12mo, cloth. Price 5s. 

44. ILLUSTRATIONS of the WISDOM and BENEVOLENCE of the 
DEITY, as, manifested in Nature. By H. EDWARDS, LL.D. Square 
12mo, cloth. Price 2$. 6d. 



Serials. 

45. CURTIS'S BOTANICAL MAGAZINE, by Sir WILLIAM JACKSON 
HOOKER, F.R.S., V.P.L.S., &c., Director of the Royal Gardens of Kew. 
In monthly numbers, each containing six plates, price 3s. Qd. coloured. 

46. HOOKER'S JOURNAL OF BOTANY, and KEW GARDEN MIS- 
CELLANY. Edited by SIR WILLIAM JACKSON HOOKER, F.R.S., 
&c. In monthly numbers. Price Two Shillings. 

47. ILLUSTRATIONS OF BRITISH MYCOLOGY ; containing Figures 
and Descriptions of the Funguses of interest and novelty indigenous to 
Britain. Second Series. By Mrs. HUSSEY. In Monthly Parts, price 5s. 
To be completed in twenty Parts. 

48. NEREIS AUSTRALIS ; or, Illustrations of the Algse of the Southern 

Ocean. By Professor HARVEY, M.D., M.R.I. A. To be completed in 
Four Parts, each containing Twenty-five plates, imp. 8vo, price \l. Is. 
Parts I. and II. recently published, coloured. 

49. CONTRIBUTIONS TO ORNITHOLOGY. By SIR WILLIAM JAR- 
DINE, Bart. Published in parts. Coloured plates. 

50. CONCHOLOGIA ICONICA; or, Figures and Descriptions of the 
Shells of Molluscous Animals. By LOVELL REEVE, F.L.S. Demy4to. 
Monthly. Eight plates. Price 10s. coloured. 

51. CURTIS'S BRITISH ENTOMOLOGY. Re-issued in monthly parts, 
each containing four plates and corresponding text. Price 3s. 6d. 
coloured. 



Printed by John Edward Taylor, Little Queen-street, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 




SELECTION FROM THE 

BOTANICAL WORKS 

PUBLISHED BY 

EEEVE AND BENHAM, 
5, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN. 

PHYCOLOGIA BRITANNICA; or, History of the British Sea-Weeds; 
containing coloured figures, and descriptions, of all the species of Algae 
inhabiting the shores of the British Islands. By WILLIAM HENRY 
HARVEY, M.D., M.R.I.A., Keeper of the Herbarium of the University 
of Dublin, and Professor of Botany to the Dublin Society. The price 
of the work, complete, strongly bound in cloth, is as follows : 
In three vols. royal 8vo, arranged in the order $ 10 f 

of publication . 

In four vols. royal 8vo, arranged systematically -i -. 

according to the Synopsis . . . ./*' 
A few Copies have been beautifully printed on large paper. 
" The ' History of British Sea- weeds ' we can most faithfully recommend for its 
scientific, its pictorial, and its popular value ; the professed botanist will find it a 
work of the highest character, whilst those who desire merely to know the names 
and history of the lovely plants which they gather on the sea-shore, will find in it 
the faithful portraiture of every one of them." Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History. 

THE VINE. Illustrated with plates. 8vo. 5*. 

" Mr. Assheton Smith's place at Tedworth has long possessed a great English re- 
putation for the excellence of its fruit and vegetables ; one is continually hearing in 
society of the extraordinary abundance and perfection of its produce at seasons when 
common gardens are empty, and the great world seems to have arrived at the con- 
clusion that kitchen gardening and forcing there are nowhere excelled. We have, 
therefore, examined, with no common interest, the work before us, for it will be 
strange indeed if a man who can act so skilfully as Mr. Sanders should be unable to 
offer advice of corresponding value. We have not been disappointed. Mr. Sanders's 
directions are as plain as words can make them, and, we will add, as judicious as his 
long experience had led us to expect. After a careful perusal of his little treatise, we 
find nothing to object to and much to praise." Gardeners' Chronicle. 

POPULAR FIELD BOTANY. By AGNES CATLOW. Second Edition, 
revised by the Author. With twenty coloured plates. 10 s. Qd. 

THE RHODODENDRONS OF SIKKIM-HIMALAYA. (Completed.} 
With coloured drawings and descriptions made on the spot. By J. 
D. HOOKER, M.D., F.R.S. Edited by Sir W. J. HOOKER, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Second Edition. In handsome imperial folio, with ten beautifully co- 
loured plates. Part I., 21$. ; Parts II. and III., 25*. each. 
"A most beautiful example of fine drawing and skilful colouring, while the 
letter-press furnished by the talented author possesses very high interest. Of the 
species of Rhododendron which he has found in his adventurous journey, some are 
quite unrivalled in magnificence of appearance." Gardeners' Chronicle. 



VOICES FROM THE WOODLANDS; or, History of Forest Trees, 
Lichens, Mosses, and Ferns. By MARY ROBERTS. With twenty 
coloured plates by FITCH. Royal 16mo. ]0,s. Qd. 

"The fair authoress of this pretty volume has shown more than the usual good 
taste of her sex in the selection of her mode of conveying to the young interesting in- 
struction upon pleasing topics. She bids them join in a ramble through the sylvan 
wilds, and at her command the fragile lichen, the gnarled oak, the towering beech, 
the graceful chestnut, and the waving poplar, discourse eloquently, and tell their re- 
spective histories and uses." Britannia. 

THE VICTORIA REGIA. By Sir W. J. HOOKER, F.R.S. In elephant 
folio. Beautifully illustrated by W. Fitch. Price 31,?. 6d. 
" Although many works have been devoted to the illustration and description of 
the ' Victoria Regia,' it seemed still to want one which, whilst it gave an accurate 
botanical description of the plant, should at the same time show the natural size of 
its gigantic flowers. This object has been aimed at by the combined labours of Sir 
W. J. Hooker and Mr. Fitch, and with distinguished success, in the volume before 
us. The illustrations are everything that could be desired in the shape of botanical 
drawing." Athenaeum. 

A CENTURY OF ORCHIDACEOUS PLANTS, the Plates selected from 
the Botanical Magazine. The descriptions re-written by Sir WILLIAM 
JACKSON HOOKER, F.R.S. , Director of the Royal Gardens of Kew ; 
with Introduction and instructions for their culture by JOHN CHARLES 
LYONS, Esq. One hundred coloured plates, royal quarto. Price Five 
Guineas. 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF BRITISH MYCOLOGY; or, Figures and De- 
scriptions of British Funguses. By Mrs. T. J. HUSSEY. Royal 4to. 
Ninety plates, beautifully coloured. Price 7 l&s. 6d., cloth. 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF BRITISH MYCOLOGY; containing Figures and 
Descriptions of the Funguses of interest and novelty indigenous to 
Britain. Second Series. By Mrs. HUSSEY. In Monthly Parts, 
price 5,9. To be completed in twenty Parts. 

CURTIS'S BOTANICAL MAGAZINE (commenced in 1786) ; continued 
by Sir WILLIAM JACKSON HOOKER, K.H., D.C.L., &c., Director of the 
Royal Gardens of Kew. With observations on the culture of each 
species, by Mr. JOHN SMITH, A.L.S., Curator of the Royal Gardens. 

*#* The present Series commences with the year 1845, and is pub- 
lished in monthly numbers, each containing six plates, price 3<y. 6d. 
coloured, or in volumes, price 42s. 

HOOKER'S JOURNAL OF BOTANY AND* KEW GARDENS 
MISCELLANY. Edited by Sir WILLIAM JACKSON HOOKER. In 
monthly numbers, with a plate, price One Shilling ; and in volumes, 
price I2s. 6d. 

POPULAR HISTORY OF BRITISH SEA-WEEDS, comprising all the 
Marine Plants. By the Rev. DAVID LANDSBOROUGH, A.L.S. Second 
Edition, revised by the Author. With twenty-two plates by Fitch. 
10,9. Qd. coloured. 



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